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Blockchain Oracles: A Framework for Blockchain-Based Applications

Part of the Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing book series (LNBIP,volume 393)


Oracles support the access, validation, and transmission of data from external sources to blockchain systems. They are important components of blockchain-based architectures. However, there exists no guidance on how oracles could be used when designing blockchain-based applications. In this paper, based on the results of a systematic literature review, we propose a framework to explain blockchain oracles and their relationships to blockchain-based applications. More specifically, the blockchain oracle framework addresses the origin of data, oracle properties, encryption method, oracle data source, validation procedures, and the integration of oracles to blockchain-based applications. Potentially, this framework can guide developers when incorporating oracles to blockchain-based applications.


  • Blockchain
  • Blockchain-based applications
  • Blockchain oracles
  • Blockchain oracle framework

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Correspondence to Mubashar Iqbal .

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Mammadzada, K., Iqbal, M., Milani, F., García-Bañuelos, L., Matulevičius, R. (2020). Blockchain Oracles: A Framework for Blockchain-Based Applications. In: Asatiani, A., et al. Business Process Management: Blockchain and Robotic Process Automation Forum. BPM 2020. Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing, vol 393. Springer, Cham.

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