Skip to main content

Pillar-Based Object Detection for Autonomous Driving

  • Conference paper
  • First Online:
Computer Vision – ECCV 2020 (ECCV 2020)

Part of the book series: Lecture Notes in Computer Science ((LNIP,volume 12367))

Included in the following conference series:

Abstract

We present a simple and flexible object detection framework optimized for autonomous driving. Building on the observation that point clouds in this application are extremely sparse, we propose a practical pillar-based approach to fix the imbalance issue caused by anchors. In particular, our algorithm incorporates a cylindrical projection into multi-view feature learning, predicts bounding box parameters per pillar rather than per point or per anchor, and includes an aligned pillar-to-point projection module to improve the final prediction. Our anchor-free approach avoids hyperparameter search associated with past methods, simplifying 3D object detection while significantly improving upon state-of-the-art.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this chapter

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or Ebook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Chapter
USD 29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
eBook
USD 84.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as EPUB and PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
Softcover Book
USD 109.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Compact, lightweight edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info

Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout

Purchases are for personal use only

Institutional subscriptions

Similar content being viewed by others

References

  1. Atzmon, M., Maron, H., Lipman, Y.: Point convolutional neural networks by extension operators. ACM Trans. Graph. (TOG) (2018)

    Google Scholar 

  2. Cai, Z., Vasconcelos, N.: Cascade R-CNN: delving into high quality object detection. In: The IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR) (2018)

    Google Scholar 

  3. Chang, A.X., et al.: ShapeNet: an information-rich 3D model repository. CoRR (2015)

    Google Scholar 

  4. Chen, X., Ma, H., Wan, J., Li, B., Xia, T.: Multi-view 3D object detection network for autonomous driving. In: The Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR) (2016)

    Google Scholar 

  5. Choy, C., Gwak, J., Savarese, S.: 4D spatio-temporal ConvNets: minkowski convolutional neural networks. In: The IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR) (2019)

    Google Scholar 

  6. Dai, J., et al.: Deformable convolutional networks. In: The International Conference on Computer Vision (ICCV) (2017)

    Google Scholar 

  7. Girshick, R.: Fast R-CNN. In: The International Conference on Computer Vision (ICCV) (2015)

    Google Scholar 

  8. Girshick, R., Donahue, J., Darrell, T., Malik, J.: Rich feature hierarchies for accurate object detection and semantic segmentation. In: The IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR) (2014)

    Google Scholar 

  9. Goforth, H., Aoki, Y., Srivatsan, R.A., Lucey, S.: PointNetLK: robust & efficient point cloud registration using PointNet. In: The Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR) (2019)

    Google Scholar 

  10. Graham, B., Engelcke, M., van der Maaten, L.: 3D semantic segmentation with submanifold sparse convolutional networks. In: The IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR) (2018)

    Google Scholar 

  11. He, K., Gkioxari, G., Dollár, P., Girshick, R.: Mask R-CNN. In: The International Conference on Computer Vision (ICCV) (2017)

    Google Scholar 

  12. He, K., Zhang, X., Ren, S., Sun, J.: Deep residual learning for image recognition. In: The IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition Recognition (CVPR) (2016)

    Google Scholar 

  13. Ioffe, S., Szegedy, C.: Batch normalization: accelerating deep network training by reducing internal covariate shift. In: The International Conference on Machine Learning (ICML) (2015)

    Google Scholar 

  14. Kingma, D.P., Ba, J.: Adam: a method for stochastic optimization. In: The International Conference on Learning Representations (ICLR) (2014)

    Google Scholar 

  15. Ku, J., Mozifian, M., Lee, J., Harakeh, A., Waslander, S.: Joint 3D proposal generation and object detection from view aggregation. In: The International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS) (2018)

    Google Scholar 

  16. Lang, A.H., Vora, S., Caesar, H., Zhou, L., Yang, J., Beijbom, O.: Pointpillars: fast encoders for object detection from point clouds. In: The IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR), June 2019

    Google Scholar 

  17. Liang, M., Yang, B., Chen, Y., Hu, R., Urtasun, R.: Multi-task multi-sensor fusion for 3D object detection. In: The Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR) (2019)

    Google Scholar 

  18. Liang, M., Yang, B., Wang, S., Urtasun, R.: Deep continuous fusion for multi-sensor 3D object detection. In: Ferrari, V., Hebert, M., Sminchisescu, C., Weiss, Y. (eds.) ECCV 2018. LNCS, vol. 11220, pp. 663–678. Springer, Cham (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-01270-0_39

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  19. Lin, T.Y., Dollár, P., Girshick, R., He, K., Hariharan, B., Belongie, S.: Feature pyramid networks for object detection. In: The IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR) (2017)

    Google Scholar 

  20. Lin, T.Y., Goyal, P., Girshick, R., He, K., Dollár, P.: Focal loss for dense object detection. In: The International Conference on Computer Vision (ICCV) (2017)

    Google Scholar 

  21. Liu, W., et al.: SSD: single shot multibox detector. In: Leibe, B., Matas, J., Sebe, N., Welling, M. (eds.) ECCV 2016. LNCS, vol. 9905, pp. 21–37. Springer, Cham (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-46448-0_2

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  22. Liu, X., Qi, C.R., Guibas, L.J.: FlowNet3D: learning scene flow in 3D point clouds. In: The Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR) (2019)

    Google Scholar 

  23. Liu, X., Yan, M., Bohg, J.: MeteorNet: deep learning on dynamic 3D point cloud sequences. In: The International Conference on Computer Vision (ICCV) (2019)

    Google Scholar 

  24. Loshchilov, I., Hutter, F.: SGDR: stochastic gradient descent with warm restarts. In: The International Conference on Learning Representations (ICLR) (2017)

    Google Scholar 

  25. Meyer, G.P., Laddha, A., Kee, E., Vallespi-Gonzalez, C., Wellington, C.K.: LaserNet: an efficient probabilistic 3d object detector for autonomous driving. In: The Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR) (2019)

    Google Scholar 

  26. Nair, V., Hinton, G.E.: Rectified linear units improve restricted Boltzmann machines. In: The International Conference on Machine Learning (ICML) (2010)

    Google Scholar 

  27. Ngiam, J., et al.: StarNet: targeted computation for object detection in point clouds. arXiv (2019)

    Google Scholar 

  28. Qi, C.R., Litany, O., He, K., Guibas, L.J.: Deep Hough voting for 3D object detection in point clouds. In: The International Conference on Computer Vision (2019)

    Google Scholar 

  29. Qi, C.R., Liu, W., Wu, C., Su, H., Guibas, L.J.: Frustum PointNets for 3D object detection from RGB-D data. In: The Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR) (2018)

    Google Scholar 

  30. Qi, C.R., Su, H., Mo, K., Guibas, L.J.: PointNet: deep learning on point sets for 3D classification and segmentation. In: The IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR) (2017)

    Google Scholar 

  31. Qi, C.R., Yi, L., Su, H., Guibas, L.J.: PointNet++: deep hierarchical feature learning on point sets in a metric space. In: Neural Information Processing Systems (NeurIPS) (2017)

    Google Scholar 

  32. Redmon, J., Divvala, S.K., Girshick, R.B., Farhadi, A.: You only look once: unified, real-time object detection. In: The IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR) (2016)

    Google Scholar 

  33. Redmon, J., Farhadi, A.: YOLO9000: better, faster, stronger. In: The IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR) (2017)

    Google Scholar 

  34. Ren, S., He, K., Girshick, R., Sun, J.: Faster R-CNN: towards real-time object detection with region proposal networks. In: Neural Information Processing Systems (NeurIPS) (2015)

    Google Scholar 

  35. Sarode, V., et al.: One framework to register them all: PointNet encoding for point cloud alignment. arXiv (2019)

    Google Scholar 

  36. Shi, S., Wang, X., Li, H.: PointrCNN: 3D object proposal generation and detection from point cloud. In: The Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR) (2019)

    Google Scholar 

  37. Simon, M., Milz, S., Amende, K., Groß, H.M.: Complex-YOLO: real-time 3D object detection on point clouds. In: The Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR) (2018)

    Google Scholar 

  38. Su, H., et al.: SPLATNet: sparse lattice networks for point cloud processing. In: The Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR), pp. 2530–2539 (2018)

    Google Scholar 

  39. Sun, P., et al.: Scalability in perception for autonomous driving: Waymo open dataset. arXiv (2019)

    Google Scholar 

  40. Thomas, H., Qi, C., Deschaud, J.E., Marcotegui, B., Goulette, F., Guibas, L.J.: KPConv: flexible and deformable convolution for point clouds. In: The International Conference on Computer Vision (ICCV) (2019)

    Google Scholar 

  41. Tian, Z., Shen, C., Chen, H., He, T.: FCOS: fully convolutional one-stage object detection. In: The International Conference on Computer Vision (ICCV) (2019)

    Google Scholar 

  42. Wang, Y., Solomon, J.: Deep closest point: learning representations for point cloud registration. In: The International Conference on Computer Vision (ICCV) (2019)

    Google Scholar 

  43. Wang, Y., Solomon, J.: PRNet: self-supervised learning for partial-to-partial registration. In: Neural Information Processing Systems (NeurIPS) (2019)

    Google Scholar 

  44. Wang, Y., Sun, Y., Ziwei Liu, S.E.S., Bronstein, M.M., Solomon, J.M.: Dynamic graph CNN for learning on point clouds. ACM Trans. Graph. (TOG) 38, 146 (2019)

    Google Scholar 

  45. Wong, K., Wang, S., Ren, M., Liang, M., Urtasun, R.: Identifying unknown instances for autonomous driving. In: The Conference on Robot Learning (CORL) (2019)

    Google Scholar 

  46. Xu, D., Anguelov, D., Jain, A.: PointFusion: deep sensor fusion for 3D bounding box estimation. In: The Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR) (2018)

    Google Scholar 

  47. Yan, Y., Mao, Y., Li, B.: Second: sparsely embedded convolutional detection. In: Sensors (2018)

    Google Scholar 

  48. Yang, B., Liang, M., Urtasun, R.: HDNET: exploiting HD maps for 3D object detection. In: The Conference on Robot Learning (CORL) (2018)

    Google Scholar 

  49. Yang, B., Luo, W., Urtasun, R.: PIXOR: real-time 3D object detection from point clouds. The Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR) (2018)

    Google Scholar 

  50. Zhou, X., Wang, D., Krähenbühl, P.: Objects as points. arXiv (2019)

    Google Scholar 

  51. Zhou, Y., et al.: End-to-end multi-view fusion for 3D object detection in LiDAR point clouds. In: The Conference on Robot Learning (CoRL) (2019)

    Google Scholar 

  52. Zhou, Y., Tuzel, O.: VoxelNet: end-to-end learning for point cloud based 3D object detection. In: The IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR) (2018)

    Google Scholar 

  53. Zhu, C., He, Y., Savvides, M.: Feature selective anchor-free module for single-shot object detection. In: The Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR) (2019)

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

Yue Wag, Justin Solomon, and the MIT Geometric Data Processing group acknowledge the generous support of Army Research Office grants W911NF1710068 and W911NF2010168, of Air Force Office of Scientific Research award FA9550-19-1-031, of National Science Foundation grant IIS-1838071, from the MIT–IBM Watson AI Laboratory, from the Toyota–CSAIL Joint Research Center, from gifts from Google and Adobe Systems, and from the Skoltech–MIT Next Generation Program. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of these organizations.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Yue Wang .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

1 Electronic supplementary material

Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.

Supplementary material 1 (pdf 391 KB)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

Copyright information

© 2020 Springer Nature Switzerland AG

About this paper

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this paper

Wang, Y. et al. (2020). Pillar-Based Object Detection for Autonomous Driving. In: Vedaldi, A., Bischof, H., Brox, T., Frahm, JM. (eds) Computer Vision – ECCV 2020. ECCV 2020. Lecture Notes in Computer Science(), vol 12367. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-58542-6_2

Download citation

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-58542-6_2

  • Published:

  • Publisher Name: Springer, Cham

  • Print ISBN: 978-3-030-58541-9

  • Online ISBN: 978-3-030-58542-6

  • eBook Packages: Computer ScienceComputer Science (R0)

Publish with us

Policies and ethics