Skip to main content

Cultural Capital, Engineers’ Associations, and the State

  • 65 Accesses

Abstract

The establishment of organisations to take care of the interests of engineers came in a time when the cultural patterns of European nations were sharply divided but also in rapid change. The social value of being an engineer was rising in several countries, but their standing in society was unstable. France was getting an established practice of giving engineers from the École polytechnique high posts in the state as well as in industry. However in industry the École centrale was a strong competitor, as its engineers were educated for private enterprise and not for state service. Yet, France was the only country where engineers had an inroad to the élite. Germany and Britain were traditional in their favouring humanistic learning and a doctor’s degree in science or humanities before the new technological degrees. The pressed situation made many engineers long for a protection of the title of engineer, like the protection of the medical title of physicians.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution.

Buying options

Chapter
USD   29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
eBook
USD   99.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as EPUB and PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
Softcover Book
USD   129.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Compact, lightweight edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info
Hardcover Book
USD   129.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Durable hardcover edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info

Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout

Purchases are for personal use only

Learn about institutional subscriptions

Notes

  1. 1.

    Putnam (1995).

  2. 2.

    Bourdieu and Passeron (1985) I feel an obligation to express my gratitude to Pierre Bourdieu, though he cannot any longer be reached, for several discussions in Uppsala and Paris on different matters in history and sociology, always related to his creative social concepts and their empirical bases.

  3. 3.

    For the Humboldt university as a programme see primarily Schelsky (1970) For other views and critique, see; Schubring (ed.), (1991), Torstendahl (2015), 349–72.

  4. 4.

    Generally, see Emmerson (1973) and especially for the USA its ch. 8. See also, Bledstein (1976), 80–87, 193–195; and Layton (1971).

  5. 5.

    A striking example of this is given in Horna (1992).

  6. 6.

    Guagnini (1993), 16–41, esp. 19–20.

  7. 7.

    Ibidem, 22–23.

  8. 8.

    Ibidem, 24–25.

  9. 9.

    As regards the English society, Perkin’s (1969), (1989), seem to give ample support to the idea that traditional values had a firm support in great parts of English society, though not in all parts.

  10. 10.

    Ringer (1969), 9 (quote), cf. 282-295, and 402 (“The mandarins never really identified the causes of cultural decadence. They could not decide whether technology and democracy or positivism and materialism were to blame”).

  11. 11.

    Manegold (1981), 140–41.

  12. 12.

    Ibidem, 142. Quotation translated by RT.

  13. 13.

    See for instance Birnbaum (1978). I have given a more detailed description of the early pantouflage in Sect. 3.1 above.

  14. 14.

    The quotation is from the first article of the first chapter (“But et composition de l’Association”) of the Amicale de Anciens Elèves de l’Ecole Polytechnique to be found at https://polytechniciens.com/index.php?page=asso_statut.html (accessed 11 Dec. 2017). L’Association des Centraliens states meetings with industrial leaders of all sectors and help in technological innovation as general goals in a brief summary (“Son activité s'accomplit au moyen de publications, de communications, de manifestations: la revue ‘Centraliens’ diffuse des articles et dossiers techniques d'actualité, les groupements professionnels organisent régulièrement des rencontres avec des personnalités du monde industriel et économique, les ‘Entretiens de la Technologie’”,) at https://association.centraliens.net/page/association-presentation (accessed 10 Dec. 2017).

  15. 15.

    Grelon (1994), 33, 38, 40–41.

  16. 16.

    Barbas (1978), 20, 66, 77–78.

  17. 17.

    See above, Sect.5.2.

  18. 18.

    Day (1982), esp. 142–150.

  19. 19.

    Lintsen (1985), 39–42.

  20. 20.

    Runeby (1976), 241–47.

  21. 21.

    Holmberger (1912), 81.

  22. 22.

    Holmberger (1912), 90–93.

  23. 23.

    Holmberger (1912), 102–105.

  24. 24.

    Nygaard (2013), 70–80, 83–85.

  25. 25.

    Minesso (1996), 267.

  26. 26.

    Minesso (1996), 269–70.

  27. 27.

    Minesso (1996), 280–1.

  28. 28.

    Minesso (1996), 283–4.

  29. 29.

    The expanding use of engineers in states in Western Europe I have treated I general terms in Torstendahl, Bureaucratisation in Northwestern Europe, esp. Chaps. 45, and the strategic outlook of engineers in its Chap. 10.

  30. 30.

    Cohen (1994), 197–212.

  31. 31.

    Boltansk (1985).

  32. 32.

    Minesso (1995).

  33. 33.

    Calvert (1967), 14ff.

  34. 34.

    Calvert (1967), 13–27, Armytage (1990) Shinn (1978), 40–47; Runeby (1976), Chaps. 34.

  35. 35.

    Appleyard (1947), 245–6, Watson (1988), 53. The Civils had the same arrangement, but from Watson's book it is not clear from what date.

  36. 36.

    Platt (1973), pp. 16–17. His survey of countries covers the USA and Canada plus eight European countries, where he found protection either of the general title or of a qualified variety such as Diplomingenieur.

  37. 37.

    Grelon (1986), 211–24 esp. 214–218.

  38. 38.

    The whole part two of Grelon, Les ingénieurs, deals with this question. See especially the contributions by Pascal Goutmann, ‘La genèse parlementaire de la loi sur le titre d’ingéniour’; Georges Ribeill, ‘Des ingénieurs civils en quête d’un titre’; idem, ‘Une institution quinquagénaire: La Commission des Titres d’Ingénieurs’; André Guillerme, ‘La loi du 10 juillet 1934 et les ingénieurs des Travaux Publics’.

  39. 39.

    Riera i Tuèbols (1988), 55.

  40. 40.

    Lintsen (1985), 51, 68, 71–73.

  41. 41.

    See ‘Vorwort’ in Grünewald (ed.) (1971) and the relevant parts of the laws reprinted in the same volume. An overview of the struggle for protection of the title is given in Walter Kaiser, ‘Ingenieure in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland’, inKönig (eds.) ( 2006).

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Rolf Torstendahl .

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

Copyright information

© 2021 The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG

About this chapter

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this chapter

Torstendahl, R. (2021). Cultural Capital, Engineers’ Associations, and the State. In: Engineers in Western Europe: Ascent—and Decline?. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-57438-3_6

Download citation

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-57438-3_6

  • Published:

  • Publisher Name: Springer, Cham

  • Print ISBN: 978-3-030-57437-6

  • Online ISBN: 978-3-030-57438-3

  • eBook Packages: HistoryHistory (R0)

Publish with us

Policies and ethics