Skip to main content

Linguistic Variation in Animated Films from 2001 to 2017

  • 280 Accesses

Part of the Palgrave Studies in Translating and Interpreting book series (PTTI)

Abstract

This chapter presents the corpus of animated films, providing a description of language variation and linguistic characterisation in the films. It summarises how various languages and language varieties are represented in each film, examining which characters speak English natively and which speak a non-native variety of English or a language other than English. Each film is described through summary tables containing information about characters, language varieties and languages. The chapter also highlights interesting trends or patterns in linguistic characterisation in the original films.

Keywords

  • Linguistic variation
  • Multilingualism
  • Corpus of animated films
  • Linguistic characterisation
  • Stereotypes

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Buying options

Chapter
USD   29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-56638-8_4
  • Chapter length: 94 pages
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
eBook
USD   109.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • ISBN: 978-3-030-56638-8
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
Softcover Book
USD   149.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Hardcover Book
USD   149.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)

Notes

  1. 1.

    A table containing the films in alphabetical order is provided in Appendix 1.

  2. 2.

    On the use of General American by actors and trained speech teachers to teach a non-regionally marked variety of American English for the stage see the International Dialects of English Archive (IDEA): https://www.dialectsarchive.com/general-american.

  3. 3.

    On this TV and cinema trope see https://tvtropes.org/pmwiki/pmwiki.php/Main/SurferDude.

  4. 4.

    Eight native speakers of British English and one native speaker of American English identified the language variety spoken by Chief Bogo as British English. Four British English speakers also detected an East London accent (see also Dore 2019), while two detected an accent that was a mixture of British and American.

  5. 5.

    I would like to thank Claudia Gvirzman Dichter, Giselle Spiteri Miggiani, Antonio Romano, Christopher Taylor, Stuart Doherty and Shan Hirst for their comments.

  6. 6.

    I would like to thank Stuart Doherty for providing these data, creating tables and pie charts.

  7. 7.

    I would like to thank Tessa Dwyer for her comments about Australian accents and film stereotypes of Australians.

  8. 8.

    The dubbing director of the Italian version confirms that the bears are Russian (Mete, p.c. 9 June 2020) and that the client asked them to make them speak with a slight Russian accent in the dubbed version.

References

  • Barra, Luca. 2007. Springfield, Italia. Slittamenti e conversioni di senso nell’adattamento italiano di una serie televisiva statunitense. Studi Culturali IV (2): 207–231.

    Google Scholar 

  • Beaudine, Gregory, Oyemolade Osibodu, and Aliya Beavers. 2017. Disney’s Metaphorical Exploration of Racism and Stereotypes: A Review of Zootopia. Comparative Education Review 61 (1): 227–234.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Bellanta, Melissa. 2012. Larrikins: A History. St Lucia, QLD: University of Queensland Press/Penguin Books.

    Google Scholar 

  • Beseghi, Micòl. 2017. Multilingual Films in Translation: A Sociolinguistic and Intercultural Study of Diasporic Films. Bern: Peter Lang.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Beseghi, Micòl. 2019. The Representation and Translation of Identities in Multilingual TV Series: Jane the Virgin, a Case in Point. In Multilingüismo y representación de las identidades en textos audiovisuales / Multilingualism and representation of identities in audiovisual texts, ed. Pérez L. de Heredia, María & Irene de Higes Andino. MonTI Special Issue 4: 145–172.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bleichenbacher, Lukas. 2008. Multilingualism in the Movies: Hollywood Characters and Their Language Choices. Tübingen: Francke Verlag.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bleichenbacher, Lukas. 2012. Linguicism in Hollywood Movies? Representations of, and Audience Reactions to Multilingualism in Mainstream Movie Dialogues. Multilingua 31: 155–176.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Bloomquist, Jennifer. 2015. The Construction of Ethnicity via Voicing: African American English in Children’s Animated Film. In The Oxford Handbook of African American Language, ed. Sonja L. Lanehart, 740–754. Oxford/New York: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bondanella, Peter. 2006. Hollywood Italians: Dagos, Palookas, Romeos, Wise Guys, and Sopranos. London: Bloomsbury.

    Google Scholar 

  • Brode, Douglas. 2005. Multiculturalism and the Mouse: Race and Sex in Disney Entertainment. Austin: University of Texas Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bruti, Silvia. 2009. From the US to Rome Passing Through Paris: Accents and Dialects in The Aristocats and Its Italian Dubbed Version. In The Translation of Dialects in Multimedia: IntralineaOn line Translation Journal, ed. D. Chiaro, M. Giorgio Marrano, and G. Nadiani. Special Issue http://www.intralinea.org/print/article/1713.

  • Bruti, Silvia. 2014. Accent and Dialect as a Source of Humour: The Case of Rio. In Translating Humour in Audiovisual Texts, ed. G.L. De Rosa, F. Bianchi, A. De Laurentiis, and E. Perego, 89–103. Bern: Peter Lang.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bruti, Silvia, and Gianmarco Vignozzi. 2016. Voices from the Anglo-Saxon World: Accents and Dialects Across Film Genres. Status Quaestionis, 11, Special Issue “North and South. British Dialects in Fictional Dialogue”, ed. I. Ranzato. Online at http://statusquaestionis.uniroma1.it/index.php/statusquaestionis/article/view/13832. Last accessed 20 November 2017.

  • Cabanillas, Candelas. 2019. The (Under)Representation of Ethnic Identity and Sociolect in (Re)Dubbing: A Case Study. In Insights into Audiovisual and Comic Translation: Changing Perspectives on Films, Comics and Videogames, ed. M. del Mar Ogea Pozo and F. Rodríguez Rodríguez, 31–45. Córdoba: UCOPress and Córdoba University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Chiaro, Delia. 2008. Where Have All the Varieties Gone? The Vicious Circle of the Disappearance Act in Screen Translations. In Dialect for all Seasons, ed. I. Helin, 9–25. Münster: Nodus Publikationen.

    Google Scholar 

  • Chiaro, Delia. 2010. Translating Humour in the Media. In Translation, Humour and the Media, ed. D. Chiaro, 1–16. London: Continuum.

    Google Scholar 

  • Chiaro, Delia. 2014. Preface: Laugh and the World Laughs with You: Tickling People’s (Transcultural) Fancy. In Translating Humour in Audiovisual Texts, ed. G.L. De Rosa et al., 15–24. Bern: Peter Lang.

    Google Scholar 

  • Chiaro, Delia. 2019. To Europe with Love. Woody Allen’s Liquid Society. In Reassessing Dubbing: Historical Approaches and Current Trends, ed. Irene Ranzato and Serenella Zanotti, 169–187. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

    Google Scholar 

  • Chiaro, Delia and Giuseppe De Bonis. 2019. An Austrian in Hollywood: The Representation of Foreigners in the Films of Billy Wilder. European Journal of Humour Research 7: 7–23.

    Google Scholar 

  • Chiaro, Delia and Giuseppe De Bonis. 2020. Multilingualism and Translation on Screen. In The Palgrave Handbook of Audiovisual Translation and Media Accessibility, ed. Łukasz Bogucki and Mikołaj Deckert, 687–711. London: Palgrave Macmillan.

    Google Scholar 

  • Clark, Urszula. 2013. Language and Identity in Englishes. Abingdon: Routledge.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Corrius, Montse, and Patrick Zabalbeascoa. 2011. Language Variation in Source Texts and Their Translations: The Case of L3 in Film Translation. Target 23 (1): 113–130.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Corrius, Montse, and Patrick Zabalbeascoa. 2019. Translating Code-Switching on the Screen: Spanglish and L3-as-Theme. Journal of Audiovisual Translation 2 (2): 72–91.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Coupland, Nikolas. 2001. Dialect Stylization in Radio Talk. Language in Society 30 (3): 345–375.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Coupland, Nikolas. 2002. Sociolinguistic Prevarication About ‘Standard English’. Journal of Sociolinguistics 4 (4): 622–634.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Coupland, Nikolas. 2007. Style: Language variation and Identity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Crawford, Robert. 2010. Learning to Say G’Day to the World: The Development of Australia’s Marketable Image in the 1980s. Consumption Markets & Culture 13 (1): 43–59. https://doi.org/10.1080/10253860903346757.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Cutler, Cecelia, 2016. “Ets jast ma boooooooo” Social Meanings of Scottish Accents on Youtube in Squires. In English in Computer-Mediated-Communication. Variation, Representation and Change., ed. Lauren, 69–100. London/Berlin: De Gruyter.

    Google Scholar 

  • De Bonis, Giuseppe. 2014a. Alfred Hitchcock Presents: Multilingualism as a Vehicle for … Suspense: The Italian Dubbing of Hitchcock’s Multilingual Films. Linguistica Antverpiensia, New Series: Themes in Translation Studies 13: 169–192.

    Google Scholar 

  • De Bonis, Giuseppe. 2014b. Commedia in Scompiglio: One, Two, Three. Il multilinguismo come veicolo di umorismo. In Translating Humour in Audiovisual Texts, ed. F. Bianchi, A. De Laurentiis, G. L. De Rosa, and E. Perego, 189–214. Bern: Peter Lang.

    Google Scholar 

  • De Bonis, Giuseppe. 2014c. Dubbing Multilingual Films Between Neutralisation and Preservation of Lingua-Cultural Identities: A Critical Review of the Current Strategies in Italian Dubbing. In The Languages of Dubbing: Mainstream Audiovisual Translation in Italy, ed. Maria Pavesi, Maicol Formentelli, and Elisa Ghia, 243–266. Bern, Berlin, Bruxelles, Frankfurt am Main, New York, Oxford, and Wien: Peter Lang.

    Google Scholar 

  • De Bonis, Giuseppe. 2015a. Translating Multilingualism in Film: A Case Study on Le concert. New Voices in Translation Studies 12: 50–71.

    Google Scholar 

  • De Bonis, Giuseppe. 2015b. Tradurre il multilinguismo al cinema: Lingue, identità culturali e loro rappresentazione sullo schermo. Unpublished PhD. thesis. Forlì: Università di Bologna. Online at http://amsdottorato.unibo.it/7201/1/debonis_giuseppe_tesi.pdf. Last accessed 5 February 2020.

  • De Higes-Andino, Irene. 2014. The Translation of Multilingual Films: Modes, Strategies, Constraints and Manipulation in the Spanish Translations of It’s a Free World…. Linguistica Antverpiensia New Series 13: 211–231. https://lans.ua.ac.be/index.php/LANS-TTS/article/view/47/307.

  • De Rosa, Gian Luigi. 2014. Back to Brazil: Humor and Sociolinguistic Variation in Rio. In Translating Humour in Audiovisual Texts, ed. De Rosa, Gian Luigi, Francesca Bianchi, Antonella De Laurentiis and Elisa Perego, 105–128. Bern: Peter Lang.

    Google Scholar 

  • Delabastita, Dirk, and Rainer Grutman. 2005. Introduction: Fictional Representations of Multilingualism and Translation. Linguistica Antverpiensia 4: 11–34.

    Google Scholar 

  • Díaz-Cintas, Jorge. 2011. Dealing with Multilingual Films in Audiovisual Translation. In Translation, Sprachvariation, Mehrsprachigkeit. Festschrift für Lew Zybatow zum 60, ed. Wolfgang Pöckl, Ingeborg Ohnheiser and Peter Sandrini, 215–233. Geburtstag. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang.

    Google Scholar 

  • Di Giovanni, Elena. 2003. Cultural Otherness and Global Communication in Walt Disney Films at the Turn of the Century. The Translator 9: 207–223.

    Google Scholar 

  • Di Giovanni, Elena. 2007. Disney Films: Reflections of the Other and the Self. In ‘Intercultural Communication’, in Special Issue, Culture, Language and Representation, vol. 4, ed. José. R. Prado, 91–111.

    Google Scholar 

  • Dore, Margherita. 2019a. Multilingual humour in audiovisual translation. Modern Family dubbed in Italian. European Journal of Humour Research 7 (1): 52–70.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Dore, Margherita. 2019b. Revoicing Otherness and Stereotypes via Dialects and Accents in Disney’s Zootopia and its Italian Dubbed Version. In InTRAlinea, ed. Klaus Geyer and Margherita Dore. Special Issue: The Translation of Dialects in Multimedia IV. Online at http://www.intralinea.org/specials/article/2465. Last accessed 5 February 2020.

  • Ellender, Claire. 2015. Dealing with Difference in Audiovisual Translation: Subtitling Linguistic Variation in Films. Oxford: Peter Lang.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Ferber, Lauren. 2008. Pardon our French: French Stereotypes in American Media. The Osprey Journal of Ideas and Inquiry, University of Noprth Florida, 7 (7). http://digitalcommons.unf.edu/ojii_volumes/7. Last accessed 20 June 2014.

  • Ferrari, Chiara Francesca. 2010. Since When Is Fran Drescher Jewish? Dubbing Stereotypes in The Nanny, The Simpsons and The Sopranos. Austin: University of Texas Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Finegan, Edward John, and R. Rickford (eds.). 2004. Language in the USA: Themes for the 21st Century. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Fusari, Sabrina. 2007. Idioletti e dialetti nel doppiaggio italiano dei. Simpson. Occasional Papers, 4–35. Bologna: Quaderni del CeSLiC.

    Google Scholar 

  • Galassi, Gianni. 1994. La norma traviata. In Il doppiaggio. Trasposizioni linguistiche e culturali, ed. R. Baccolini, R. M. Bollettieri Bosinelli, and L. Gavioli, 61–70. Bologna: Clueb.

    Google Scholar 

  • Goldsmith, B. 2017. UnAustralians: Australian Characters in Non-Australian Films. In Australian Screen in the 2000s, ed. M. Ryan and B. Goldsmith, 77–98. London: Palgrave Macmillan.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Green, Lisa. 2002. African American English: A Linguistic Introduction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Grutman, Rainier. 1996. Langues étrangères et savoir romantique: considérations préliminaires. TTR: traduction, terminologie, rédaction 9 (1): 71–90.

    Google Scholar 

  • Heiss, Christine. 2004. Dubbing Multilingual Films: A New Challenge. Meta 49 (1): 208–220.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Heiss, Christine. 2014. Multilingual Films and Integration? What Role Does Film Translation Play? In Media and Translation: An Interdisciplinary Approach, ed. Dror Abend-David, 3–24. Bloomsbury Academic: London.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hodson, Jane. 2014. Dialect in Film and Literature. Houndmills: Palgrave MacMillan.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Julius, Jessica. 2016. The Art of Disney Zootopia. Preface by John Lasseter. Foreword by Byron Howard and Rich Moore. San Francisco: Chronicle Books.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kachru, Braj. 1983. The Indianization of English: The English language in India. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kirkpatrick, Andy. 2007. World Englishes. Implications for International Communication and English Language Teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • King, C. Richard, Carmen R. Lugo-Lugo, and Mary K. Bloodsworth-Lugo. 2010. Animating Difference: Race, Gender, and Sexuality in Contemporary Films for Children. Plymouth: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kortmann, Bernd and Edgar W. Schneider (eds.). 2004. A Handbook of Varieties of English: A Multimedia Reference Tool. Berlin: De Gruyter.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kozloff, Sarah. 2000. Overhearing Film Dialogue. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Labov, William. 1966. The Social Stratification of English in New York City. Washington: Center for Applied Linguistics.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lanehart, Sonja (ed.) 2015. The Oxford Companion to African American Language. Oxford/New York: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lippi-Green, Rosina. 1997. English with an Accent: Language, Ideology, and Discrimination in the United States. London: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lippi-Green, Rosina. 2012. English with an accent: Language, Ideology and Discrimination in the United States, 2nd ed. Abingdon and New York: Routledge.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Marshall, P. David. 2019. Constructing Persona: Mediatisation, Performativity, Quality, and Branding in Australian Film Actors’ Migration to Hollywood. In A Companion to Australian Cinema, ed. Felicity Collins, Jane Landman, and Susan Bye, 184–203. Hoboken: Wiley Blackwell.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Martínez-Sierra, Juan José, José Luis Martí-Ferriol, Irene de Higes-Andino, Ana Prats-Rodríguez, and Frederic Chaume. 2010. Linguistic Diversity in Spanish Immigration Films: A Translational Approach. In Polyglot Cinema: Migration and Transcultural Narration in France, Italy, Portugal and Spain, ed. V. Berger and M. Komori, 15–32. Vienna: LIT.

    Google Scholar 

  • Martínez Tejerina, Anjana, and Samantha Sánchez Martínez. 2019. El doblaje de acentos extranjeros y regionales en Los Simpson. In Multilingüismo y representación de las identidades en textos audiovisuales/Multilingualism and Representation of Identities in Audiovisual Texts, ed. María Pérez L. de Heredia and Irene Higes Andino. MonTI Special Issue 4: 281–307.

    Google Scholar 

  • Meylaerts, Reine. 2006. Heterolingualism in/and Translation: How Legitimate Are the Other and His/Her Language? An Introduction. Target 18 (1): 1–15.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Miller-Zarneke, Tracey. 2014. The Art of Planes. Preface by John Lasseter. Forewords by Klay Hall and Bobs Gannaway. San Francisco: Chronicle Books.

    Google Scholar 

  • Minutella, Vincenza. 2012. ‘You Fancying Your Gora Coach Is Okay with Me’: Translating Multilingual Films for an Italian Audience. In Audiovisual Translation and Media Accessibility at the Crossroads: Media for All 3, ed. Pilar Orero, Aline Remael, and Mary Carroll, 313–334. Amsterdam, New York: Rodopi.

    Google Scholar 

  • Minutella, Vincenza. 2014. Translating Verbally Expressed Humour in Dubbing and Subtitling: the Italian versions of Shrek. In Translating Humour in Audiovisual Texts, ed. Gian Luigi De Rosa, F. Bianchi, A. de laurentiis, and E. Perego, 67–87. Bern: Peter Lang.

    Google Scholar 

  • Minutella, Vincenza. 2016. British Dialects in Animated Films: The Case of Gnomeo and Juliet and Its Creative Italian Dubbing. Status Quaestionis, 11, Special Issue “North and South: British Dialects in Fictional Dialogue”, ed. Irene Ranzato. Online at http://statusquaestionis.uniroma1.it/index.php/statusquaestionis/article/view/13838 [20 November 2017].

  • Minutella, Vincenza. 2018. Translating Non-Native Varieties of English in Animated Films: The Italian Dubbing of Madagascar 3: Europe’s most wanted. Cultus Journal 11: 144–157. Retrieved fom https://www.cultusjournal.com/files/Archives/Vincenza-Minutella.pdf [20 May 2020].

  • Monti, Silvia. 2009. Codeswitching and Multicultural Identity in Screen Translation. In Analysing Audiovisual Dialogue: Linguistic and Translational Insights, ed. M. Freddi and M. Pavesi, 165–183. Bologna: Clueb.

    Google Scholar 

  • Monti, Silvia. 2016. Reconstructing, Reinterpreting and Renarrating Code-Switching in the Italian Dubbed Version of British and American Multilingual Films. In Ideological Manipulation in Audiovisual Translation, Altre Modernità, ed. J. Díaz-Cintas et al., 68–91.

    Google Scholar 

  • O’Sullivan, Carol. 2011. Translating Popular Film. Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Paolinelli, Mario, and Eleonora Di Fortunato. 2005. Tradurre per il doppiaggio. La trasposizione linguistica dell’audiovisivo. Teoria e pratica di un’arte imperfetta. Milan: Hoepli.

    Google Scholar 

  • Parini, Ilaria. 2009. The Transposition of Italian-American in Italian Dubbing. In Translating Regionalised Voices in Audiovisuals, ed. F.M. Federici, 157–176. Rome: Aracne.

    Google Scholar 

  • Parini, Ilaria. 2017. When Benny the Groin and Tommy the Tongue Whacked Lou the Wrench: Cultural and Linguistic Representation of Italians in Mafia Comedies. In The Mediterranean Dreamed and Lived by Insiders and Outsiders, ed. Antonio C. Vitti and Anthony Julian Tamburri, 103–127. New York: Bordighera Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Parini, Ilaria. 2019. Sleeping with the Fishes: Italian-Americans in Animation. In Reassessing Dubbing: Historical Approaches and Current Trends, ed. Irene Ranzato and Serenella Zanotti, 246–262. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Pavesi, Maria. 1994. Osservazioni sulla sociolinguistica del doppiaggio In Il doppiaggio. Trasposizioni linguistiche e culturali, ed. R. Baccolini, R. M. Bollettieri Bosinelli, and L. Gavioli, 129–142.Bologna Clueb.

    Google Scholar 

  • Pavesi, Maria. 2005. La traduzione filmica. Aspetti del parlato doppiato dall’inglese all’italiano. Rome: Carocci.

    Google Scholar 

  • Pavesi, Maria. 2009. Dubbing English into Italian: A Closer Look at the Translation of Spoken Language. In New Trends in Audiovisual Translation, ed. J. Díaz Cintas, 197–209. Buffalo and Toronto: Multilingual Matters.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Pérez L. de Heredia, María, and Irene Higes Andino (eds.). 2019. Multilingüismo y representación de las identidades en textos audiovisuales /Multilingualism and Representation of Identities in Audiovisual Texts. MonTI Special Issue 4.

    Google Scholar 

  • Petrucci, Peter R. 2012. The Translation of Cinematic Discourse and the Question of Character Equivalence in Talk to Me. Multilingua 31: 231–251.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Petrucci, Peter R. 2015. Reclaiming Rio: Iconization and Erasure of American English in the Brazilian Portuguese Dubbing of an Animated Film. Perspectives: Studies in Translation Theory and Practice 23 (3): 392–405.

    Google Scholar 

  • Phillips, Taylor. 2010. Put Your Money Where Your Mouth Is: The Effects of Southern vs. Standard Accent on Perceptions of Speakers. In Social Sciences, 53–57. On-line at https://web.stanford.edu/group/journal/cgi-bin/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2012/09/Phillips_SocSci_2010.pdf. Last accessed 20 September 2019.

  • Planchenault, Gaëlle. 2015. Voices in the Media: Performing French Linguistic Otherness. London and New York: Bloomsbury.

    Google Scholar 

  • Planchenault, Gaëlle. 2017. Doing dialects in Dialogues: Regional, Social and Ethnic Variation in Fiction. In Pragmatics of Fiction, ed. M.A. Locher and A.H. Jucker, 265–296. De Gruyter Mouton: Berlin and Boston.

    Google Scholar 

  • Puddu, N., and D.F. Virdis. 2014. Dalla Scozia alla Sardegna: stereotipi e tratti bandiera di Groundskeeper Willie/Willie il Giardiniere dei Simpson. In Dalla Sardegna all’Europa, ed. A. Dettori, 338–354. FrancoAngeli: Lingue e letterature regionali, Milan.

    Google Scholar 

  • Pym, Anthony. 2000. Translating Linguistic Variation: Parody and the Creation of Authenticity. Retrieved from http://usuaris.tinet.cat/apym/on-line/translation/authenticity.html [20 September 2019].

  • Ramírez Berg, Charles. 2002. Latino Images in Film: Stereotypes, Subversion and Resistance. Austin: University of Texas Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Rampton, Ben. 1999. Styling the Other: Introduction. Journal of Socilinguistics 3 (4): 421–427.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ranzato, Irene. 2010. Localising Cockney: Translating Dialect into Italian. In New Insights into Audiovisual Translation and Media Accessibility, ed. J. Díaz Cintas, A. Matamala, and J. Neves, 109–122. Amsterdam: Rodopi.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ranzato, Irene. 2018a. The Cockney Persona: The London Accent in Characterisation and Translation. Perspectives: Studies in Translation Theory and Practice, 27 (2): 235–251.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ranzato, Irene. 2018b. The British Upper Classes: Phonological Fact and Screen Fiction. In Linguistic and Cultural Representation in Audiovisual Translation, ed. Irene Ranzato and Serenella Zanotti, 203–227. London/New York: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  • Rojek, Chris. 2008. Brit-Myth: Who Do the British Think They Are? London: Reaktion Books.

    Google Scholar 

  • Rossi, Fabio. 2006. Il linguaggio cinematografico. Rome: Aracne.

    Google Scholar 

  • Salmon Kovarski, Laura. 2000. Tradurre l’etnoletto: come doppiare in italiano ‘l’accento ebraico’. In Traduzione multimediale: quale traduzione per quale testo? ed. R. M. Bollettieri Bosinelli, C. Heiss, M. Soffritti & S. Bernardini, 67–84. Bologna: Clueb.

    Google Scholar 

  • Santamaria Guinot, Laura, and Miquel Pujol Tubau. 2018. Mapping L3 in Audiovisual Productions. In Focusing on Audiovisual Translation Research, ed. John D. Sanderson and Carla Botella-Tejera, 191–210. Valencia: Universidad de Valencia.

    Google Scholar 

  • Soares, Telma O. 2017. Animated Films and Linguistic Stereotypes: A Critical Discourse Analysis of Accent Use in Disney Animated Films. Master thesis, Bridgewatr State University. In BSU Master’s Theses and Projects. Item 53. Available at http://vc.bridgew.edu/theses/53.

  • Svartvik, Jan and Geoffrey Leech. 2016. English. One Tongue, Many Voices. London: Palgrave Macmillan.

    Google Scholar 

  • Walsh, Ann E. 2015. Spanish Stars, Distant Dreams: the Role of Voice in Shaping Perception. In Stars in World Cinema: Screen Icons and Star Systems Across Cultures, ed. Andrea Bandhauer and Michelle Royer, 92–103. I. B. Tauris: London and New York.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wahl, Chris. 2005. Discovering a Genre: The Polyglot Film. Cinemascope 1.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wahl, Chris. 2008. ‘Du Deutscher, Toi Français, You English: Beautiful!’—The Polyglot Film as a Genre. In Shifting Landscapes: Film and Media in European Context, ed. Miyase Christensen and Nezih Erdoğan, 334–350. Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wells, John. 1982a. Accents of English 1: An Introduction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wells, John. 1982b. Accents of English 2: The British Isles. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wells, John. 1982c. Accents of English 3: Beyond the British Isles. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wolfram, Walt, and Natalie Schilling-Estes. 2006. American English: Dialects and Variation. Malden: Blackwell Publishing.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wolfram, Walt, and Ben Ward (eds.). 2006. American Voices: How Dialects Differ from Coast to Coast. Oxford: Blackwells Publishing.

    Google Scholar 

  • Zabalbeascoa, Patrick. 2000. Contenidos para Adultos en el Género Infantil: el Caso del Doblaje de Walt Disney. In Literatura Infantil y Juvenil: Tendencias Actuales en Investigación, ed. V. Ruzicka, C. Vázquez, and L. Lorenzo, 19–30. Vigo: Universidad de Vigo.

    Google Scholar 

  • Zabalbeascoa, Patrick. 2014. Introducción. La combinación de lenguas como mecanismo de humor y problema de traducción audiovisual. In Translating Humour in Audiovisual Texts, ed. Gian Luigi De Rosa et al., 25–47. Bern: Peter Lang.

    Google Scholar 

  • Zabalbeascoa, Patrick, and Montse Corrius. 2014. How Spanish in an American Film Is Rendered in Translation: Dubbing Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid in Spain, Perspectives: Studies in Translatology 22: 255–270. https://doi.org/10.1080/0907676x.2012.695380.

  • Zanotti, Serenella, 2011, “You Got to Git Realistic”: the Dubbing of African American English into Italian. In Challenges for the 21st Century: Dilemmas, Ambiguities, Directions. Vol. II: Language Studies, ed. G. Di Martino, L. Lombardo and S. Nuccorini, 129–139. Roma: Edizioni Q.

    Google Scholar 

Online References

Filmography

  • Atlantis (2001). Gary Trousdale, Kirk Wise, Walt Disney Feature Animation, Walt Disney Pictures.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bend It Like Beckham (2002). Gurinder Chadha, Kintop Pictures, Film Council, Filmförderung Hamburg, British Sky Broadcasting (BskyB), British Screen Productions, Bend it Films.

    Google Scholar 

  • Brave/Ribelle (2012). Mark Andrews, Brenda Chapman, Steve Purcell, Walt Disney Pictures, Pixar Animation Studios.

    Google Scholar 

  • Cars (2006). John Lasseter, Pixar Animation Studios, Walt Disney Pictures.

    Google Scholar 

  • Cars 2 (2011). John Lasseter, Brad Lewis, Walt Disney Pictures, Pixar Animation Studios.

    Google Scholar 

  • Cars 3 (2017). Brian Fee, Pixar Animation Studios, Walt Disney Pictures.

    Google Scholar 

  • Coco (2017). Lee Unkrich, Adrian Molina, Walt Disney Pictures, Pixar Animation Studios.

    Google Scholar 

  • Despicable Me (2010). Pierre Coffin, Chris Renaud, Universal Pictures, Illumination Entertainment.

    Google Scholar 

  • Despicable Me 2 (2013). Pierre Coffin, Chris Renaud, Universal Pictures, Illumination Entertainment.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ferdinand (2017). Carlos Saldanha, Blue Sky Studios, Davis Entertainment, 20th Century Fox Animation.

    Google Scholar 

  • Finding Dory (2016). Andrew Stanton, Angus MacLane, Pixar Animation Studios, Walt Disney Pictures.

    Google Scholar 

  • Finding Nemo (2003). Andrew Stanton, Lee Unkrich, Pixar Animation Studios, Walt Disney Pictures.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gnomeo & Juliet (2011). Kelly Asbury, Rocket Pictures, Arc Productions, Touchstone Pictures, Miramax, Starz Animation.

    Google Scholar 

  • Home (2015). Tim Johnson, DreamWorks Animation.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hotel Transylvania (2012). Genndy Tartakovsky, Columbia Pictures, Sony Pictures Animation.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hotel Transylvania 2 (2015). Genndy Tartakovsky, Columbia Pictures, Sony Pictures Animation.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hotel Transylvania 3: Summer Vacation (2018). Genndy Tartakovsky, Sony Pictures Animation, Media Rights Capital (MRC), Rough Draft Korea.

    Google Scholar 

  • How to Train Your Dragon (2010). Dean DeBlois, Chris Sanders, DreamWorks Animation, Mad Hatter Entertainment, Vertigo Entertainment.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ice Age: Dawn of the Dinosaurs (2009). Carlos Saldanha, Mike Thurmeier, 20th Century Fox Animation, Blue Sky Studios.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ice Age: The Meltdown (2006). Carlos Saldanha, 20th Century Fox Animation, Blue Sky Studios.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lilo and Stitch (2002). Dean DeBlois, Chris Sanders, Walt Disney Pictures.

    Google Scholar 

  • Madagascar (2005). Eric Darnell, Tom McGrath, DreamWorks Animation, Pacific Data Images.

    Google Scholar 

  • Madagascar: Escape 2 Africa (2008). Eric Darnell, Tom McGrath, DreamWorks Animation, Pacific Data Images.

    Google Scholar 

  • Madagascar 3: Europe’s Most Wanted (2012). Eric Darnell, Tom McGrath, Conrad Vernon, DreamWorks Animation, Pacific Data Images.

    Google Scholar 

  • Mr. Peabody and Sherman (2014). Rob Minkoff, Bullwinkle Studios, Classic Media Productions, DreamWorks Animation, Pacific Data Images.

    Google Scholar 

  • My Fair Lady (1964). George Cukor, Warner Bros.

    Google Scholar 

  • Planes (2013). Klay Hall, Prana Studios, Disneytoon Studios.

    Google Scholar 

  • Puss in Boots (2011). Chris Miller, DreamWorks Animation, Pacific Data Images.

    Google Scholar 

  • Rango (2011). Gore Verbinski, Paramount Pictures, Nickelodeon Movies, Blind Wink Productions, GK Films, Industrial Light & Magic.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ratatouille (2007). Brad Bird, Jan Pinkava, Walt Disney Pictures, Pixar Animation Studios.

    Google Scholar 

  • Rio (2011). Carlos Saldanha, 20th Century Fox Animation, Blue Sky Studios.

    Google Scholar 

  • Rio 2 (2014). Carlos Saldanha, 20th Century Fox Animation, Blue Sky Studios, FortyFour Studios.

    Google Scholar 

  • Rise of the Guardians (2012). Peter Ramsey, DreamWorks Animation.

    Google Scholar 

  • Shark Tale (2004). Bibo Bergeron, Vicky Jenson, Rob Letterman, DreamWorks Animation, DreamWorks.

    Google Scholar 

  • Shrek (2001). Andrew Adamson, Vicky Jenson, DreamWorks Animation, DreamWorks, Pacific Data Images, Vanguard Films.

    Google Scholar 

  • Shrek 2 (2004). Andrew Adamson, Kelly Asbury, Conrad Vernon, DreamWorks, DreamWorks Animation, Pacific Data Images.

    Google Scholar 

  • Shrek Forever After (2010). Mike Mitchell, DreamWorks Animation, Pacific Data Images.

    Google Scholar 

  • Shrek the Third (2007). Chris Miller, Raman Hui, DreamWorks Animation, Pacific Data Images.

    Google Scholar 

  • Sing (2016). Garth Jennings, Cristophe Lourdelet, Illumination Entertainment, Universal Pictures, Dentsu, Fuji Television Network.

    Google Scholar 

  • The Aristocats (1970). Wolfgang Reitherman, Walt Disney Productions.

    Google Scholar 

  • The Book of Life (2014). Jorge R. Gutiérrez, 20th Century Fox Animation, 20th Century Fox, Reel FX Creative Studios, Chatrone, Mexopolis.

    Google Scholar 

  • The Godfather (1972). Francis Ford Coppola, Paramount Pictures, Alfran Productions.

    Google Scholar 

  • The Wild (2006). Steve ‘Spaz’ Williams, C.O.R.E. Feature Animation, Contrafilm, Freewill Entertainment, Hoytyboy Pictures, Nigel Productions, Sir Zip Studios, Walt Disney Pictures.

    Google Scholar 

  • Toy Story 3 (2010). Lee Unkrich, Walt Disney Pictures, Pixar Animation Studios.

    Google Scholar 

  • Turbo (2013). David Soren, DreamWorks Animation.

    Google Scholar 

  • Zootopia (2016). Byron Howard, Rich Moore, Jared Bush, Walt Disney Pictures, Walt Disney Animation Studios.

    Google Scholar 

TV Series

  • The Nanny (1993–1999). Fran Drescher et al. (creators), Dorothy Lyman, Lee Shallat Chemel, Peter Marc Jacobson et al. (directors), CBS.

    Google Scholar 

  • The Simpsons (1989–ongoing). James L. Brooks, Matt Groening, Sam Simon, Gracie Films, 20th Century Fox Television, 20th Century Fox.

    Google Scholar 

  • The Sopranos (1999–2007). David Chase, HBO.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Vincenza Minutella .

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

Copyright information

© 2021 The Author(s)

About this chapter

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this chapter

Minutella, V. (2021). Linguistic Variation in Animated Films from 2001 to 2017. In: (Re)Creating Language Identities in Animated Films. Palgrave Studies in Translating and Interpreting. Palgrave Macmillan, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-56638-8_4

Download citation

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-56638-8_4

  • Published:

  • Publisher Name: Palgrave Macmillan, Cham

  • Print ISBN: 978-3-030-56637-1

  • Online ISBN: 978-3-030-56638-8

  • eBook Packages: Social SciencesSocial Sciences (R0)