Conclusions and Outlooks

  • Tiansi DongEmail author
Part of the Studies in Computational Intelligence book series (SCI, volume 910)


Capable of classifying huge amount of texts, translating hundreds of languages, predicting the rise and fall of global markets, even driving unmanned automobiles, Deep Learning systems are the hope of the fifth industrial revolution. However, recent studies have found that Deep Learning systems can be easily manipulated, i.e., in image recognition and in natural language understanding. The nature of one system of the mind (System 1), which Deep Learning systems simulates, dictates that any given data would be put into a coherent story, even at the cost of logic. Another system of the mind (System 2) manages logical thinking by following rules and structures, which symbolic AI simulates. How to combine Deep Learning with symbolic structures remains an open debate.


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Copyright information

© The Editor(s) (if applicable) and The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2021

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.ML2R Competence Center for Machine Learning Rhine-Ruhr, MLAI Lab, AI Foundations Group, Bonn-Aachen International Center for Information Technology (b-it)University of BonnBonnGermany

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