Skip to main content

Shift of Paradigm from Model-Based to Simulation-Based

  • Conference paper
  • First Online:
Simulation and Modeling Methodologies, Technologies and Applications (SIMULTECH 2019)

Part of the book series: Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing ((AISC,volume 1260))


Simulation-based approach provides a very powerful, rich, and versatile paradigm for many disciplines, methodologies, and studies. Already over 170 disciplines, methodologies, and approaches are simulation-based. The article clarifies the essence and power of simulation-based approach. To reach this aim the following is done: First, as a basis, the essence of simulation which consists of experimentation and experience is covered. The historic rise of the experimentation in early 17th century as a basis of scientific method as well as the additional benefits of simulated experiments are covered. The unique advantages of coupling simulation and the working of real systems are explained. Possibilities offered by simulation to gain three types of experience are clarified. A brief history of model-based approach as well as the first discipline for which model-based approach was promoted are explained. Richness and versatility of simulation and benefits of its use are detailed. The power gained by first and higher-order synergies of simulation with several other disciplines such as system theories, systems engineering, computers, software engineering, software agents, and reliability are mentioned. The already achieved shift of paradigm from model-based to simulation-based is strongly endorsed.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this chapter

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or eBook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

USD 29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
USD 129.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as EPUB and PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
Softcover Book
USD 169.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Compact, lightweight edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info

Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout

Purchases are for personal use only

Institutional subscriptions

Similar content being viewed by others


  1. Ören, T., Mittal, S., Durak, U.: The evolution of simulation and its contributions to many disciplines. Chapter 1. In: Mittal, S., Durak, U., Ören, T. (eds.) Guide to Simulation-Based Disciplines: Advancing our Computational Future, pp. 3–24. Springer, Cham (2017)

    Google Scholar 

  2. Ören, T.I.: The many facets of simulation through a collection of about 100 definitions. SCS M&S Magazine 2(2), 82–92 (2011)

    Google Scholar 

  3. Ören, T.I.: A critical review of definitions and about 400 types of modeling and simulation. SCS M&S Magazine 2(3), 142–151 (2011)

    Google Scholar 

  4. SEP-Aristotle’s Logic: Aristotle’s Logic. In: Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Accessed 23 Dec 2019

  5. SEP-Francis Bacon. In: Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Accessed 25 Dec 2019

  6. SEP-Scientific Method. In: Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Accessed 23 Dec 2019

  7. Dewey, J.: Art as experience. Minton, Balch and Company. (New York, NY: Perigee (Penguin group) paperback edition, August 2005) (1934)

    Google Scholar 

  8. Ören, T.I.: GEST: General System Theory implementor, A combined digital simulation language. Ph.D. Dissertation. Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona (1971)

    Google Scholar 

  9. Ören, T.I.: GEST - a modelling and simulation language based on system theoretic concepts. In: Ören, T.I., Zeigler, B.P., Elzas, M.S. (eds.) Simulation and Model-Based Methodologies: An Integrative View, pp. 281–335. Springer, Heidelberg (1984)

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  10. Wymore, A.W.: A Mathematical Theory of Systems Engineering: The Elements. Krieger, Huntington (1967)

    Google Scholar 

  11. Ören, T.I., Zeigler, B.P.: Concepts for advanced simulation methodologies. (SCS) Simulation, 32(3), 69–82 (1979)

    Google Scholar 

  12. Ören, T.I., Zeigler, B.P., Elzas, M.S. (eds.): Simulation and model-based methodologies: an integrative view. Springer, Heidelberg. NATO ASI Series (1984).

  13. Ören, T.I.: Model-based activities: A paradigm shift. In: Ören, T.I., Zeigler, B.P., Elzas, M.S. (eds.) Simulation and Model-Based Methodologies: An Integrative View, pp. 3–40. Springer, Heidelberg (1984)

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  14. Wymore, A.W.: Model-Based Systems Engineering. CRC Press, Boca Raton (1993)

    Google Scholar 

  15. Ören, T., Mittal, S., Durak, U.: Modeling and simulation: the essence and increasing importance. In: Niazi, M.A. (ed.) Modeling and Simulation of Complex Communication Networks, pp. 3–26. Stevenage, UK: IET Book Series on Big Data (2019 Invited Chapter)

    Google Scholar 

  16. Ören, T., Mittal, S., Durak, U.: The evolution of simulation and its contributions to many disciplines. In: Mittal, S., Durak, U., Ören, T. (eds.) Chapter 1 of Guide to Simulation-Based Disciplines: Advancing Our Computational Future, pp. 3–24. Springer, Cham (2017)

    Google Scholar 

  17. Karplus, W.J.: ‘‘The spectrum of mathematical modeling and systems simulation. Math. Comput. Simulat. Trans. IMACS 19(1), 3–10 (1977)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Ören, T.: Agent-directed simulation and nature-inspired modeling for cyber-physical systems engineering. In: Risco-Martin, J.-L., Mittal, S., Ören, T. (eds.) Simulation for Cyber-Physical Systems Engineering: A Cloud-Based Context. Springer, Cham (2020 – In Preparation)

    Google Scholar 

  19. Satell, G.: Why the future of innovation is simulation (2013). Forbes, 15 July 2013. Accessed 23 Dec 2019

  20. Vozenileck, J.: Why the future of innovation is simulation (2013). Accessed 23 Dec 2019

  21. Merriam-Webster. (n.d.): Synergy. In: Dictionary. 23 Dec 2019.

  22. Yilmaz, L., Ören, T.I. (eds.): Agent-Directed Simulation and Systems Engineering. Wiley Series in Systems Engineering and Management, Berlin (2009)

    Google Scholar 

  23. Yilmaz, L., Ören, T.I.: Agent-directed simulation (ADS). In: Yilmaz, L., Ören, T.I. (eds.) Agent-Directed Simulation and Systems Engineering, pp. 111–143. Wiley Series in Systems Engineering and Management, Berlin (2009)

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  24. NSF (2006). Revolutionizing Engineering Science through Simulation (A Report of the National Science Foundation Blue Ribbon Panel on Simulation-Based Engineering Science. Accessed 24 Dec 2019

  25. Gianni, D., D’Ambrogio, A., Tolk, A. (eds.): Modeling and Simulation-Based Systems Engineering Handbook. CRC Press, Boca Raton (2014)

    Google Scholar 

  26. Mittal, S., Durak, U., Ören, T. (eds.): Guide to Simulation-Based Disciplines: Advancing Our Computational Future. Springer, Cham (2017)

    Google Scholar 

  27. Ören, T.: On the advantages of simulation-based approach in engineering. COJ Electron. Commun. 1(1), 1–3 (2018)

    Google Scholar 

  28. Ören, T., Mittal, S., Durak, U.: A shift from model-based to simulation-based paradigm: timeliness and usefulness for many disciplines. International J. Comput. Softw. Eng. 3(1) (2018 – Invited Paper).

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Tuncer Ören .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations



Over 170 Simulation-based Disciplines, Methodologies, and Approaches


simulation-based acquisition

simulation-based activity

simulation-based after-action review

simulation-based analysis

simulation-based algorithm

simulation-based application

simulation-based approach

simulation-based architectural design

simulation-based artificial neural networks

simulation-based assessment (of competence)

simulation-based assessment (of skills)

simulation-based augmented reality


simulation-based B-factor analysis

simulation-based Bayesian data fusion

simulation-based Bayesian filtering

simulation-based Bayesian g-formula

simulation-based Bayesian inference

simulation-based benchmarking

simulation-based bias correction

simulation-based breeding design

simulation-based building energy optimization


simulation-based calibration

simulation-based case study

simulation-based casting

simulation-based coaching

simulation-based communication workshop

simulation-based comparison

simulation-based complex adaptive systems

simulation-based control

simulation-based costing

simulation-based creation (of digital twin)

simulation-based curriculum

simulation-based cyber-physical systems


simulation-based data engineering

simulation-based decision making

simulation-based decision support

simulation-based demo

simulation-based design

simulation-based diagnosis

simulation-based discipline

simulation-based discovery

simulation-based discrete optimization

simulation-based drug discovery

simulation-based dynamic programming

simulation-based dynamic traffic assignment


simulation-based e-learning

simulation-based e-training

simulation-based earthquake scenario

simulation-based econometric model

simulation-based education (SBE)

simulation-based educational workshop

simulation-based emergency response planning

simulation-based engineering

simulation-based environment

simulation-based era analysis

simulation-based estimation

simulation-based estimator

simulation-based evaluation

simulation-based event-analysis

simulation-based experiential learning


simulation-based fault detection

simulation-based fault injection

simulation-based feasibility study


simulation-based games

simulation-based genetic algorithm


simulation-based H-infinity estimator

simulation-based hardware verification

simulation-based health care

simulation-based health care education

simulation-based heuristic


simulation-based inference

simulation-based innovation

simulation-based instruction

simulation-based internal models

simulation-based interprofessional education

simulation-based intervention

simulation-based interview

simulation-based invention

simulation-based investigation

simulation-based irrigation scheduling

simulation-based iteration


simulation-based learning

simulation-based learning methodology


simulation-based M-estimator

simulation-based M-step value iteration

simulation-based mastery learning

simulation-based medical education

simulation-based medical learning

simulation-based medical teaching

simulation-based medical training

simulation-based method

simulation-based methodology

simulation-based military training

simulation-based monitoring

simulation-based movie


simulation-based neonatal resuscitation

simulation-based neonatal resuscitation curriculum

simulation-based network control

simulation-based nursing education


simulation-based optimal design

simulation-based optimization


simulation-based paramedic training

simulation-based parameter optimization

simulation-based patient

simulation-based patient safety

simulation-based performance analysis

simulation-based performance control

simulation-based petroleum engineering

simulation-based planning

simulation-based platform

simulation-based post-cardiac arrest care

simulation-based proof


simulation-based quality improvement


simulation-based reality

simulation-based reliability evaluation

simulation-based research

simulation-based robot

simulation-based robot command

simulation-based robot control

simulation-based robot development

simulation-based robot programming

simulation-based robot-assisted

simulation-based robot-assisted surgical training


simulation-based scenario

simulation-based scheduling

simulation-based science

simulation-based search

simulation-based security

simulation-based simplification

simulation-based skill acquisition

simulation-based software engineering

simulation-based statistical inference

simulation-based strategy

simulation-based structure optimization

simulation-based study

simulation-based support

simulation-based surgery

simulation-based surgery planning

simulation-based surgical training

simulation-based system

simulation-based system analysis

simulation-based system assessment

simulation-based system design

simulation-based system development

simulation-based system emergency evacuation

simulation-based system identification

simulation-based system integration

simulation-based system reliability

simulation-based system specification

simulation-based system testing

simulation-based system validation

simulation-based systems engineering


simulation-based t-peel test

simulation-based t-test

simulation-based t values

simulation-based teaching (SBT)

simulation-based team training

simulation-based testing

simulation-based testing platform

simulation-based thorascopy training

simulation-based tool

simulation-based traffic assignment

simulation-based training

simulation-based tutorial


simulation-based UAS swarm selection

simulation-based understanding

simulation-based usability evaluation


simulation-based V&V

simulation-based V&V method

simulation-based V/F speed control

simulation-based validation

simulation-based value-at-risk

simulation-based verification

simulation-based virtual laboratory

simulation-based virtual reality

simulation-based vocational education

simulation-based vocational training

simulation-based V-process


simulation-based Web course

simulation-based workshop


simulation-based X-ray system design


simulation-based z-score method

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

Copyright information

© 2021 Springer Nature Switzerland AG

About this paper

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this paper

Ören, T. (2021). Shift of Paradigm from Model-Based to Simulation-Based. In: Obaidat, M., Ören, T., Szczerbicka, H. (eds) Simulation and Modeling Methodologies, Technologies and Applications. SIMULTECH 2019. Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, vol 1260. Springer, Cham.

Download citation

Publish with us

Policies and ethics