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International Trade of Used and Retread Tires

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Used tires are traded internationally. Some are subject to direct reuse, whereas others become cores for retread tires, which are also traded internationally. Such international trade contributes to improved resource efficiency and reduced transportation costs in the importing countries. However, importing worn-out used tires may pose a safety problem. The international trade of used tires can transfer mosquitos, which are vectors for disease, to other countries, thereby spreading mosquito-borne diseases such as dengue fever. This chapter reviews the trade statistics for used and retread tires since 1990 and identifies factors that affect trade flows. The important factors are income level, trade restriction, car inspection system, and road condition. The impacts of these factors differ according to the type of tire. The effectiveness, justification, and impact of trade restrictions are also discussed. In addition, appropriate trade policies on used and retread tires are discussed from the viewpoints of global resource efficiency and safety.


  • Used tire
  • Retread tire
  • health
  • Resource efficiency
  • Safety

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  • DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-55579-5_7
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Fig. 7.1
Fig. 7.2


  1. 1.

    Yamamoto (1995) explains the developments of commodity classification.

  2. 2.

    UN Comtrade covers three trade statistics codes: Harmonized Commodity Description Coding System (HS), Standard International Trade Classification (SITC), and Broad Economic Category (BEC). SITC and HS have been revised a number of times. Among these codes, HS has separately recorded used and retread tires from its first (accepted in 1985) to fourth (accepted in 2006) revised editions. SITC classified used and retread tires under categories such as “tires, not elsewhere specified,” together with “tires of agricultural machines,” and “vehicles of construction machinery” until its second revised edition (accepted in 1975). Also, BEC classifies used and retread tires using the same code, which cover parts of transportation equipment and accessories.

  3. 3.

    Linda Yulisman 2015 “Govt Aims High in Boosting Domestic Use” Jakarta Post May 13, 2015.

  4. 4.

    CNN Indonesia “Ban Bulkanisir Wajib SNI, untuk Apaa?” August 1, 2019., viewed on August 6, 2019.


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Correspondence to Michikazu Kojima .

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Kojima, M. (2021). International Trade of Used and Retread Tires. In: Kojima, M., Sakata, S. (eds) International Trade of Secondhand Goods. IDE-JETRO Series. Palgrave Macmillan, Cham.

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  • Publisher Name: Palgrave Macmillan, Cham

  • Print ISBN: 978-3-030-55578-8

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