Skip to main content

Why Co-producing Public Services and Public Outcomes with Citizens Is Timely

  • Chapter
  • First Online:
Co-Production of Public Services and Outcomes
  • 760 Accesses

Abstract

This chapter analyses the growing interest in the concept of user and community co-production in policy, practice and public administration research. The first section focusses on contextual factors at the macro-level, which have promoted co-production of public services and outcomes in OECD countries, including a critical discussion of the role of austerity. We identify the political, economic, social, technological, environmental and legislative macro-drivers of co-production in policy and practice. The second section analyses the evolution of the concept of co-production in public administration research.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this chapter

Chapter
USD 29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
eBook
USD 89.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as EPUB and PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
Softcover Book
USD 119.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Compact, lightweight edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info
Hardcover Book
USD 119.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Durable hardcover edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info

Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout

Purchases are for personal use only

Institutional subscriptions

References

  • Alford, J. (2002). Why do public-sector clients co-produce? Toward a contingency theory. Administration & Society, 34(1), 32–56.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Alford, J. (2009). Engaging public sector clients: From service delivery to co-production. Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • Alford, J., & Yates, S. (2016). Co-production of public services in Australia: The roles of government organisations and co-producers. Australian Journal of Public Administration, 75(2), 159–175. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8500.12157.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Arnstein, S. (1968). The ladder of citizen participation. Journal of the American Institute of Planners, 35(4), 216–224.

    Google Scholar 

  • Barnes, M., Newman, J., & Sullivan, H. (2007). Power, participation and political renewal: Case studies in public participation. Bristol: Policy Press.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • Bovaird, T. (2007). Beyond engagement and participation: User and community co-production of public services. Public Administration Review, 67(5), 846–860.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bovaird, T., & Loeffler, E. (2012). From engagement to co-production: The contribution of users and communities to outcomes and public value. VOLUNTAS: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations, 23(4), 1119–1138.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bovaird, T., & Loeffler, E. (2014). The new commissioning model of services for young people in surrey: Evaluation of achievements and implications. Report to Surrey County Council. Birmingham: INLOGOV and Governance International.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bovaird, T., van Ryzin, G., Loeffler, E., & Parrado, S. (2016). Activating citizens to participate in collective co-production of public services. Journal of Social Policy, 44(1), 1–23.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Brandsen, T., & Honingh, M. (2016). Distinguishing different types of coproduction: A conceptual analysis based on the classical definitions. Public Administration Review, 76(3), 427–435.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Brandsen, T., & Pestoff, V. (2006). Co-production, the third sector and the delivery of public services: An introduction. Public Management Review, 8, 493–501.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Brandsen, T., Steen, T., & Verschuere, B. (Eds.). (2018). Co-production and co-creation: Engaging citizens in public services. New York and Abingdon: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  • Brudney, J. L., & England, R. E. (1983). Toward a definition of the coproduction concept. Public Administration Review, 43(1), 59–65.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bussu, S., & Galanti, M. T. (2018). Facilitating co-production: the role of leadership in coproduction initiatives in the UK. Policy and Society, 37(4), 347–367.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Cahn, E. S., & Gray, C. (2012). Co-production from a normative perspective. In V. Pestoff, T. Brandsen, & B. Verschuere (Eds.), New public governance, the third sector and co-production (pp. 129–144). New York and London: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  • Carnegie UK Trust, WCVA, Creation Development Trust and Time Banking Wales. (2013). Street Ambassadors (Llydsgenhadon y Stryd): A new approach to public services through co-production. https://www.carnegieuktrust.org.uk/publications/street-ambassadors-a-new-approach-to-public-services-through-co-production/. Accessed 20 Feb 2019.

  • Christie, C. (2011). Commission on the future delivery of public services. Edinburgh: Public Services Commission, Scottish Government. https://www2.gov.scot/Resource/Doc/352649/0118638.pdf. Accessed 18 Feb 2019.

  • Cobb, J. (2018). Lambeth still officially a co-operative council despite resident requests to work with the Town Hall ignored. Brixton Buzz. http://www.brixtonbuzz.com/2018/09/lambeth-council-still-officially-a-co-operative-council-despite-resident-requests-to-work-with-the-town-hall-ignored/. Accessed 18 Feb 2019.

  • Cooke, B., & Cothari, U. (Eds.). (2001). Participation: The new tyranny. London: Zed Books.

    Google Scholar 

  • Creighton, S. (2012). “Never knowingly understood”? Realities of a co-op council. Inside Croydon. https://insidecroydon.com/2012/11/24/never-knowingly-understood-realities-of-a-co-op-council/. Accessed 18 Feb 2019.

  • Dunston, R., Lee, A., Boud, D., Brodie, P., & Chiarella, M. (2008). Co-production and health system reform—From re-imagining to re-making. The Australian Journal of Public Administration, 68(1), 39–52.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • European Platform for Rehabilitation. (2016). Briefing paper: Co-production of services. December 2016. Brussels: European Platform for Rehabilitation. https://www.epr.eu/wp-content/uploads/EPR_Paper_on_Co-production_2016-1.pdf. Accessed 28 Feb 2019.

  • Grönroos, C. (2008). Service logic revisited: Who creates value? And who co-creates? European Business Review, 20(4), 298–314.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Head, B. W., & Alford, J. (2015). Wicked problems: Implications for public policy and management. Administration and Society, 47(6), 711–739. https://doi.org/10.1177/0095399713481601.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hern, A. (2020). Digital contact tracing will fail unless privacy is respected, experts warn. 20 April 2020. The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/apr/20/coronavirus-digital-contact-tracing-will-fail-unless-privacy-is-respected-experts-warn. Accessed 27 Apr 2020.

  • Hendriks, F., & Tops, P. (2005). Everyday fixers as local heroes: A case of vital interaction in urban governance. Local Government Studies, 31(4), 475–490.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Horne, M., & Shirley, T. (2009). Co-production in public services: A new partnership with citizens (Discussion Paper). London: Strategy Unit of the Cabinet Office.

    Google Scholar 

  • Jakobsen, M. (2012). Can government initiatives increase citizen coproduction? Results of a randomized field experiment. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 2012(23), 27–54.

    Google Scholar 

  • Jakobsen, M., & Andersen, S. C. (2013). Coproduction and equity in public services. Public Administration Review, 73(5), 704–713.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kang, S., & Van Ryzin, G. G. (2020). Experimental methods for investigating co-production. In E. Loeffler & T. Bovaird (Eds.), The Palgrave handbook of co-production of public services and outcomes. London: Palgrave Macmillan.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lember, V. (2018). The increasing role of digital technologies in co-production and co-creation. In T. Brandsen, T. Steen, & B. Verschuere (Eds.), Co-production and co-creation: Engaging citizens in public services (pp. 115–127). New York and Abingdon: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  • Loeffler, E. (2016). Co-production of public services and outcomes. In T. Bovaird & E. Loeffler (Eds.), Public management and governance (pp. 319–336). Abingdon and New York: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  • Loeffler, E. (2018). Providing public safety and public order through co-production. In T. Brandsen, T. Steen, & B. Verschuere (Eds.), Co-production and co-creation: Engaging citizens in public services (pp. 211–222). New York and Abingdon: Routledge.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  • Loeffler, E. (2020). Co-delivering public services and public outcomes. In E. Loeffler & T. Bovaird (Eds.), The Palgrave handbook of co-production of public services and outcomes. London: Palgrave Macmillan.

    Google Scholar 

  • Loeffler, E., & Bovaird, T. (2018). From participation to co-production: Widening and deepening the contributions of citizens to public services and outcomes. In E. Ongaro & S. van Thiel (Eds.), The palgrave handbook of public administration and management in Europe (pp. 403–423). London: Palgrave Macmillan.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  • Loeffler, E., & Bovaird, T. (Eds.). (2020). The Palgrave handbook of co-production of public services and outcomes. London: Palgrave Macmillan.

    Google Scholar 

  • Loeffler, E., Bovaird, T., Parrado, S., & van Ryzin, G. (2008). “If you want to go fast, walk alone: If you want to go far, walk together”: Citizens and the co-production of public services. Report to the EU Presidency. Paris: Ministry of Finance, Budget and Public Services.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lowndes, V., & McCaughie, K. (2013). Weathering the perfect storm? Austerity and institutional resilience in local government. Policy & Politics, 41(4), 533–549.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • McMullin, C. (2019). Coproduction and the third sector in France: Governmental traditions and the French conceptualization of participation. Social Policy & Administration, 53(2), 295–310.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mental Health Services. (2017). A national framework for recovery in mental health. A national framework for mental health service providers to support the delivery of a quality, person-centered services. https://www.hse.ie/eng/services/list/4/mental-health-services/advancingrecoveryireland/national-framework-for-recovery-in-mental-health/recovery-framework.pdf. Accessed 17 Nov 2019.

  • Meijer, A. (2012). Co-production in an information age. In V. Pestoff, T. Brandsen, & B. Verschuere (Eds.), New public governance, the third sector and co-production (pp. 192–208). New York and London: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  • New Economics Foundation. (2008). Co-production: A manifesto for growing the core economy. London: New Economics Foundation.

    Google Scholar 

  • Normann, R. (1984). Service management: Strategy and leadership in service businesses. Chichester, UK: Wiley.

    Google Scholar 

  • OECD. (2009). Rethinking e-government services: User-centred approaches. Paris: OECD.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • Osborne, S., Radnor, Z., & Nasi, G. (2013). A new theory for public service management? Towards a (public) service-dominant approach. American Review of Public Administration, 43, 135–158.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ostrom, E. (1996). Crossing the great divide: Coproduction, synergy and development. World Development, 24(6), 1073–1087.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Paletti, A. (2016). Co-production through ICT in the public Sector: When citizens reframe the production of public services. In L. Caporelllo, E. Cesaroni, R. Giesecke, & M. Missikoff (Eds.), Digitally supported innovation (pp. 141–152). First edition. Switzerland: Springer International Publishing.

    Google Scholar 

  • Parks, R. B., Baker, P. C., Kiser, L., Oakerson, R., Ostrom, E., Ostrom, V., et al. (1981). Consumers as coproducers of public services: Some economic and institutional considerations. Policy Studies Journal, 9(7), 1001–1011.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Parrado, S., van Ryzin, G., Bovaird, T., & Loeffler, E. (2013). Correlates of co-production: Evidence from a five-nation survey of citizens. International Public Management Journal, 16(1), 1–28.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Pestoff, V. (2012). New public governance, co-production and third sector social services in Europe: Crowding in and crowding out. In V. Pestoff, T. Brandsen, & B. Verschuere (Eds.), New public governance, the third sector and co-production (pp. 361–380). New York and London: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  • Pestoff, V. (2019). Co-production and public service management: Citizenship, governance and public service management. New York and Abingdon: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  • Pestoff, V., Brandsen, T., & Verschuere, B. (Eds.). (2012). New public governance, the third sector and co-production. New York and London: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  • Potter, R. (2013). Planning for an ageing population: Statistical and broad scope of issues. Cambridge: Analytics Cambridge. http://www.analyticscambridge.co.uk/AgeingAndPlanning.php. Accessed 19 Feb 2019.

  • Royal Voluntary Service. (2020). NHS volunteer responders. https://www.goodsamapp.org/NHS. Accessed 27 Apr 2020.

  • Schlappa, H., & Imani, Y. (2018). Who is in the lead? New perspectives on leading service co-production. In T. Brandsen, T. Steen, & B. Verschuere (Eds.), Co-production and co-creation: Engaging citizens in public services (pp. 99–108). New York and Abingdon: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  • Schlappa, H., Yasmin, I., & Tatsuya, N. (2020). Relational leadership: An analytical lens for the exploration of co-production. In E. Loeffler & T. Bovaird (Eds.), The Palgrave handbook of co-production of public services and outcomes. London: Palgrave Macmillan.

    Google Scholar 

  • Scottish Government. (2018). Scotland’s digital health and care strategy: Enabling, connecting empowering. Edinburgh: The Scottish Government.

    Google Scholar 

  • Sharp, E. B. (1980). Toward a new understanding of urban services and citizen participation: The coproduction concept. Midwest Review of Public Administration, 14(2), 105–118. https://doi.org/10.1177/027507408001400203.

  • Sicilia, M., Sancino, A., Nabatchi, T., & Guarini, E. (2019). Facilitating coproduction in public services: Management implications from a systematic literature review. Public Money and Management, 39(4), 233–240.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Steen, T., Brandsen, T., & Verschuere, B. (2018). The dark side of co-creation and co-production. In T. Brandsen, T. Steen, & B. Verschuere (Eds.), Co-production and co-creation: Engaging citizens in public services (pp. 284–293). New York and Abingdon: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  • Thomas, J. C. (2012). Citizen, customer, partner: Engaging the public in public management. Abingdon and New York: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  • Thomsen, M. K., & Jakobsen, M. (2015). Influencing citizen coproduction by sending encouragement and advice: A field experiment. International Public Management Journal, 18(2), 286–303. https://doi.org/10.1080/10967494.2014.996628.

  • Tisdall, C. (2014). The transformation of services for young people in Surrey County Council: Governance International Case Study. Birmingham: Governance International. http://www.govint.org/good-practice/case-studies/the-transformation-of-services-for-young-people-in-surrey-county-council/. Accessed 18 Feb 2019.

  • Voorberg, W. H., Bekkers, V. J. J. M., & Tummers, L. G. (2015). A systematic review of co-creation and co-production: Embarking on the social innovation journey. Public Management Review, 17(9), 1333–1357.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Voorberg, W. H., Bekkers, V. J. J. M., Fleming, S., Timeus, K., Tonurist, P., & Tummers, L. G. (2017). Does co-creation impact public service delivery? The importance of state and governance traditions. Public Money and Management, 37(5), 365–372.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Welsh Government. (2015). Well-being of future generations (Wales) act 2015: The essentials. https://gov.wales/docs/dsjlg/publications/150623-guide-to-the-fg-act-en.pdf. Accessed 29 Aug 2018.

  • Whitaker, G. P. (1980). Co-production: Citizen participation in service delivery. Public Administration Review, 40(May-June), 240–246.

    Google Scholar 

  • World Health Organisation. (2016). Framework on integrated, people-centred health services. Geneva: WHO. http://apps.who.int/gb/ebwha/pdf_files/WHA69/A69_39-en.pdf?ua=1&ua=1. Accessed 20 Feb 2019.

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Elke Loeffler .

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

Copyright information

© 2021 The Author(s)

About this chapter

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this chapter

Loeffler, E. (2021). Why Co-producing Public Services and Public Outcomes with Citizens Is Timely. In: Co-Production of Public Services and Outcomes. Palgrave Macmillan, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-55509-2_1

Download citation

Publish with us

Policies and ethics