Towards a Static Check of FMUs in VDM-SL

  • Nick Battle
  • Casper Thule
  • Cláudio Gomes
  • Hugo Daniel Macedo
  • Peter Gorm Larsen
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 12233)


In order to ensure that the co-simulation of Cyber-Physical Systems (CPSs) is possible with as wide a variety of tools as possible, a standard called the Functional Mockup Interface (FMI) has been defined. The FMI provides the means to compute the overall behaviour of a coupled system by the coordination and communication of simulators, each responsible for a part of the system. The contribution presented in this paper is an initial formal model of the FMI standard using the VDM Specification Language. Early results suggest that the FMI standard defines a number of FMU static constraints that are not enforced by many of the tools that are able to export such FMUs.



We are grateful to the Poul Due Jensen Foundation, which has supported the establishment of a new Centre for Digital Twin Technology at Aarhus University, which will take forward the principles, tools and applications of the engineering of digital twins. We also acknowledge EU for funding the INTO-CPS project (grant agreement number 644047) which was the original source of funding for the INTO-CPS Application, and the Research Foundation - Flanders (Grant File Number 1S06316N). Finally, we thank the reviewers for their throughout feedback.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nick Battle
    • 1
  • Casper Thule
    • 1
  • Cláudio Gomes
    • 2
  • Hugo Daniel Macedo
    • 1
  • Peter Gorm Larsen
    • 1
  1. 1.DIGIT, Department of EngineeringAarhus UniversityAarhusDenmark
  2. 2.University of AntwerpenAntwerpBelgium

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