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Advances and Perspectives of Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid as a Bioactive Compound in Food

Part of the Advanced Structured Materials book series (STRUCTMAT,volume 140)

Abstract

GABA is a novel potent bioactive amino acid, non-proteinaceous in nature and comprising of four carbon units. Its role as an inhibitory neurotransmitter of the neuronal cortex is well known and it had proven its effects on central nervous system. Recent studies reveal that this neurotransmitter is also able to act as a hypotensive agent, anti-diabetic and as tranquilizer. Besides this, GABA is also a bioactive compound of food, pharmaceutical, and feed industries. It is present in beans, pulses, milk, green, black, and oolong tea, as well as in fermented foods including kefir, yogurt, and tempeh and other dairy products. It is normally synthesized in the plant from Glutamate and nowadays various advanced strategies are being used for enhanced production of GABA. The reason for this may be accounted for use of GABA as a supplement to treat high blood pressure, stress, and anxiety, and sleep, as well as to stimulate the body's natural growth hormone, often by athletes. This chapter would focus on the production of GABA, its effects on humans as neurotransmitter along with the physiological effects being studied recently. The chapter will also cover various types of food containing GABA and later it deals with the strategies being adopted for large scale production of GABA.

Keywords

  • Gamma-amino butyric acid
  • Glutamate
  • GAD
  • Lactobacilli
  • Lactic acid bacteria
  • Hypertension
  • Neurodegeneration
  • Obesity
  • Anti-diabetic

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Fig. 24.1
Scheme 24.1
Scheme 24.2
Scheme 24.3
Fig. 24.2

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Jain, P., Ghodke, M.S. (2021). Advances and Perspectives of Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid as a Bioactive Compound in Food. In: Pal, D., Nayak, A.K. (eds) Bioactive Natural Products for Pharmaceutical Applications. Advanced Structured Materials, vol 140. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-54027-2_24

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