Skip to main content

Echinococcus Species: Tiny Tapeworms

  • 350 Accesses

Part of the Parasitology Research Monographs book series (Parasitology Res. Monogr.,volume 13)

Abstract

The adult stages of the very tiny tapeworms of Echinococcus live in the intestines of dogs and foxes. Their larvae, however, parasitize not only in many animals, but unfortunately also in humans, where they may cause deadly effects. This chapter shows how to diagnose infections, how to avoid them and how to treat foxes, dogs, and humans with antiparasitic drugs.

Keywords

  • Life cycle
  • Transmission
  • Tumor-like disease

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Buying options

Chapter
USD   29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-53230-7_6
  • Chapter length: 16 pages
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
eBook
USD   109.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • ISBN: 978-3-030-53230-7
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
Softcover Book
USD   139.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Hardcover Book
USD   179.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Fig. 6.1
Fig. 6.2
Fig. 6.3
Fig. 6.4
Fig. 6.5
Fig. 6.6
Fig. 6.7
Fig. 6.8
Fig. 6.9
Fig. 6.10

Further Reading

  • Ahmed ME et al (2013) First report on circulation of Echinococcus ortleppi in humped camel. BMC Vet Res 9:127

    PubMed  PubMed Central  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Alvarez Rojas CA, Romig T, Lightowlers MW (2014) Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato genotypes infecting humans—review of current knowledge. Int J Parasitol 44:9–18

    Google Scholar 

  • Boulana B et al (2013) First report of Echinococcus shiquicus in dogs (China). Acta Trop 127:21–24

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Bonfana B et al (2015) Echinococcus equinus and E. granulosus from the UK. Int J Parasitol 95:161–166

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Brehm K (2017) Die Echinococcose– Eine Übersicht und neue Erkenntnisse der Diagnostik, Therapie und Parasitenbiologie. Epid Bull 15:127–132

    Google Scholar 

  • Butt A, Khan JA (2019) Cystic echinococcosis: a 10 year experiment from a middle-income country. Trop Dr 5:49475519891338

    Google Scholar 

  • Carmena D, Cardona GA (2014) Echinococcus in wild carnivorous species. Vet Parastiol 202:69–94

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Chaignat V et al (2015) The brown hare as novel intermediate host for E. multilocularis in Europe. Parasitol Res 114:3167–3169

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Chaligannis I et al (2015) Echinococcus granulosus infection dynamics in livestock in Greece. Parasitol Res 114:3167–3169

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Craig PS, Hegglin D, Lightowler MW, Torgerson PR et al (2017) Echinococcosis: control and prevention. In: Thompson RCA, Deplazes P, Lymbery AJ (eds) Echinococcus and echinococcosis, Part A. Academic, London, pp 55–158

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Comte S, Rabon V, Raoul F et al (2013) Fox baiting against Echinococcus multilocularis: contrasted achievements among two medium size cities. Prev Vet Med 111:147–155

    CAS  PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Coucher MA et al (2016) Cystic echinococcosis in South America: systematic review. Trop Med Int Health 21:166–175

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Cvejic D et al (2016) Efficacy of a single dose of milbemycin oxime/praziquantel combination tablets against adult Echinococcus multilocularis. Parasitol Res 115:1195–1202

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Deplazes P, van Knapen F, Schweiger A, Overgaauw PA (2011) Role of pet dogs and cats in the transmission of helminthic zoonoses in Europe, with a focus on echinococcosis and toxocarosis. Vet Parasitol 182:41–53

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Deplazes P, Rinaldi L, Alvarez Rojas CA, Torgerson PR, Harandi MF, Romig T, Antolova D, Schurer JM, Lahmar S, Cringoli G, Magambo J, Thompson RC, Jenkins EJ (2017a) Global distribution of alveolar and cystic echinococcosis. Adv Parasitol 95:315–493

    CAS  PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Deplazes P, Rinaldi L, Alvarez Rojas CA, Torgerson PR, Harandi MF, Romig T et al (2017b) Global distribution of alveolar and cystic echinococcosis. In: Thompson RCA, Deplazes P, Lymbery AJ (eds) Echinococcus and echinococcosis, Part A. Academic, London, pp 315–493

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Eckert J et al (1983) Proliferation and metastases formation of larval Echinococcus multilocularis. I. Animal model, macroscopical and histological findings. Parasitol Res 69:737–748

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Eckert J et al (1993) Further evidence of the occurrence of a distinct strain of Echinococcus granulosus in European pigs. Parasitol Res 79:42–48

    CAS  PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Eckert J, Gemmel MA, Meslin FX (2010) Manual on Echinococcus in humans and animals. CAB Direct 2010:286

    Google Scholar 

  • Eckert J et al (2011) Alveolar echinococcosis. In: Palmer SR et al (eds) Textbook of zoonoses, 2nd edn. Oxford University Press, Oxford

    Google Scholar 

  • European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (2020) Echinococcosis. ECDC, Stockholm

    Google Scholar 

  • European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (2017) Introduction to the Annual Epidemiological Report. In: ECDC. Annual epidemiological report for 2017 [Internet]. ECDC, Stockholm [cited 11 December 2018]. Available from: http://ecdc.europa.eu/annual-epidemiological-reports/methods

  • European Food Safety Authority and European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (2018) The European Union summary report on trends and sources of zoonoses, zoonotic agents and food-borne outbreaks in 2017. EFSA J 16(12):5500, 262 pp. Available from: https://www.ecdc.europa.eu/sites/default/files/documents/zoonoese-food-borne-outbreaks-surveillance-2017-updated.pdf

  • Grenouillet F et al (2014) Echinococcus ortleppi infections in humans and cattle, France. Emerg Infect Dis 20:2100–2112

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Grubor NM, Jovanova-Nesic KD, Shoenfeld Y (2017) Liver cystic echinococcosis and human host immune and autoimmune follow-up: a review. World J Hepatol 9:1176–1189

    PubMed  PubMed Central  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Hegglin D, Deplazes P (2008) Control strategy for Echinococcus multilocularis. Emerg Infect Dis 14:1626–1628

    PubMed  PubMed Central  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Hüttner M, Romig T (2009) Echinococcus species in African wildlife. Parasitology 136:1089–1095

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Hüttner M et al (2007) Genetic characterization and phylogenetic position of Echinococcus felidis. Int J Parasitol 38:861–868

    PubMed  CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Ikeda T, Yoshimura M, Onoyama K, Oku Y, Nonaka N, Katakura K (2014) Where to deliver baits for deworming urban red foxes for Echinococcus multilocularis control: new protocol for micro-habitat modeling of fox denning requirements. Parasit Vectors 7:357

    PubMed  PubMed Central  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Janko C, König A (2011) Disappearance rate of praziquantel-containing bait around villages and small towns in southern Bavaria, Germany. J Wildl Dis 47:373–380

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Kern P, Menezes da Silva A, Akhan O, Müllhaupt B, Vizcaychipi KA, Budke C, Vuitton DA (2017) The echinococcoses: diagnosis, clinical management and burden of disease. Adv Parasitol 96:259–369

    CAS  PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Knapp J et al (2015) Taxonomy and molecular epidemiology of Echinococcus multilocularis. Vet Parasitol 213:85–91

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • König A, Romig T, Janko C et al (2008) Integrating baiting concept against Echinococcus multilocularis is successful in Southern Bavaria, Germany. Eur J Wildl Res 54:439–447

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Larrieu E et al (2015) Pilot field trial of the EG95 vaccine against ovine echinococcosis. PLoS Negl Dis e0004134

    Google Scholar 

  • Larrieu E, Gavidia CM, Lightowlers MW (2019a) Control of cystic echinococcosis: background and prospects. Zoonoses Public Health 66:889–899

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Larrieu E, Mujica G, Araya D, Labanchi JL, Arezo M, Herrero E, Santillán G, Vizcaychipi K, Uchiumi L, Salvitti JC, Grizmado C, Calabro A, Talmon G, Sepulveda L, Galvan JM, Cabrera M, Seleiman M, Crowley P, Cespedes G, GarcíaCachau M, Gino L, Molina L, Daffner J, Gauci CG, Donadeu M, Lightowlers MW (2019b) Pilot field trial of the EG95 vaccine against ovine cystic echinococcosis in Rio Negro, Argentina: 8 years of work. Acta Trop 191:1–7

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Liu CN et al (2015) Discrimination between E. granulosus sensustricto, E. multilocularis and E. shiquicus a multiplex PCR assay. PLOS Negl Trop Dis e0004084

    Google Scholar 

  • Mehlhorn H et al (1983) Proliferation and metastasis formation of larval Echinococcus multilocularis: II. Ultrastructural investigation. Parasitol Res 69:749–763

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Mehlhorn H (2016a) Animal parasites. Diagnosis, treatment, prevention, 1st edn. Springer International, Cham

    Google Scholar 

  • Mehlhorn H (2016b) Human parasites. Diagnosis, treatment, prevention, 1st edn. Springer International, Cham

    Google Scholar 

  • Oksanen A, Lavikainen A (2015) Echinococcus canadensis transmission in the North. Vet Parasitol 213:182–186

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Otero-Abad B, Torgerson PR (2013) A systematic review of the epidemiology of echinococcosis in domestic and wild animals. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 7:e2249

    PubMed  PubMed Central  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Pourseif MM, Moghaddam G, Saeedi N, Barzegari A, Dehghani J, Omidi Y (2018) Current status and future prospective of vaccine development against Echinococcus granulosus. Biologicals 51:1–11

    CAS  PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Raoul F et al (2015) Trophic ecology, behaviour and host population dynamics of E. multilocularis. Vet Parasitol 213:162–171

    CAS  PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Robert Koch Institut (2018) Infektionsbiologisches Jahrbuch meldepflichtiger Krankheiten für 2018. Echinococcose 6(13):77–80

    Google Scholar 

  • Romig T, Bilger B, Dinkel A, Merli M et al (2007) Impact of praziquantel baiting on intestinal helminths of foxes in Southwestern Germany. Helminthologica 44:137–144

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Saarma U, Jõgisalu I, Moks E, Varcasia A, Lavikainen A, Oksanen A, Simsek S, Andresiuk V, Denegri G, González LM, Ferrer E, Gárate T, Rinaldi L, Maravilla P (2009) A novel phylogeny for the genus Echinococcus, based on nuclear data, challenges relationships based on mitochondrial evidence. Parasitology 136:317–328

    Google Scholar 

  • Schweiger A, Ammann RW, Candinas D, Clavien PA, Eckert J, Gottstein B, Halkic N, Muellhaupt B, Prinz BM, Reichen J, Tarr PE, Torgerson PR, Deplazes P (2007) Human alveolar echinococcosis after fox population increase, Switzerland. Emerg Infect Dis 13:878–882

    PubMed  PubMed Central  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Sikó SB, Deplazes P, Ceica C, Tivadar CS, Bogolin I, Popescu S, Cozma V (2011) Echinococcus multilocularis in south-eastern Europe (Romania). Parasitol Res 108:1093–1097

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Simsek S et al (2015) First report of Echinococcus equinus in a donkey in Turkey. Korean J Parasitol 53:731–735

    PubMed  PubMed Central  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Soares MCP et al (2013) Anatomo-chemical and molecular description of liver neotropical echinococcosis caused by E. oligarthrus in human host. Actatropica 125:110–114

    Google Scholar 

  • Soares MPC et al (2014) Neotropical echinococcosis: E. vogeli natural infection and its main definitive host: the bush dog (Speathos venaticus). Parasitol Int 63:485–487

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Takahashi K, Uraguchi K, Romig T et al (2002) Preliminary report on Echinococcus multilocularis control by fox baiting with praziquantel. Rep Hokkaido Inst Public Health 52:61–63

    Google Scholar 

  • Takahashi K, Uraguchi K, Hatakeyama H, Giraudoux P, Romig T (2013) Efficacy of anthelmintic baiting of foxes against Echinococcus multilocularis in northern Japan. Vet Parasitol 198:122–126

    CAS  PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Tamarozzi F, Akhan O, Cretu CM, Vutova K, Akinci D, Chipeva R et al (2018) Prevalence of abdominal cystic echinococcosis in rural Bulgaria, Romania, and Turkey: a cross-sectional, ultrasound-based, population study from the HERACLES project. Lancet Infect Dis 8:769–778

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Thompson RC (2008) The taxonomy phylogeny and transmission of Echinococcus. Exp Parasitol 119:439–446

    CAS  PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Thompson RCA (2015) Neglected zoonotic helminth: Hymenolepis nana, Echinococcus canadensis and Ancylostoma ceylanicum. Clin Microbiol Infect 21:426–432

    CAS  PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Thompson RCA et al (eds) (2017) Echinococcus and echinococcosis, Part B. Academic, London, pp 55–158

    Google Scholar 

  • Torgerson PR, Keller K, Magnotta M, Ragland N (2010) The global burden of alveolar echinococcosis. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 4(6):e722

    PubMed  PubMed Central  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Torgerson PR, MacPherson CML, Vuitton D (2011) Cystic echinococcosis. In: Palmer SR et al (eds) Oxford textbook of zoonosis, 2nd edn. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 650–689

    Google Scholar 

  • Vuitton DA, Azizi A, Richou C, Vuitton L, Blagosklonov O, Delabrousse E, Mantion GA, Bresson-Hadni S (2016) Current interventional strategy for the treatment of hepatic alveolar echinococcosis. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther 14:1179–1194

    CAS  PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Zait H, Kouidri M, Grenouillet FE, Umhang G, Millon L, Hamrioui B, Grenouillet F (2016) Molecular characterization of Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto and Echinococcus canadensis in humans and livestock from Algeria. Parasitol Res 115:2423–2431

    Google Scholar 

  • Zhang W, Zhang Z, Wu W, Shi B, Li J, Zhou X, Wen H, McManus DP (2015) Epidemiology and control of echinococcosis in central Asia, with particular reference to the People’s Republic of China. Acta Trop 141(Pt B):235–243

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Heinz Mehlhorn .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

Copyright information

© 2021 The Editor(s) (if applicable) and The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG

About this chapter

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this chapter

Mehlhorn, H. (2021). Echinococcus Species: Tiny Tapeworms. In: Strube, C., Mehlhorn, H. (eds) Dog Parasites Endangering Human Health. Parasitology Research Monographs, vol 13. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-53230-7_6

Download citation