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Abstract

This chapter reviews the geographic data that underpins a map, the process required to portray that information in graphic form, basic principles of map design, and considerations for page layout. While this is not a comprehensive review of all aspects of cartography, several excellent resources that you can refer to later are cited throughout the chapter and in the References. After reading this chapter, you should find that you are better able to understand what a map shows and how it is shown. You should also be more critically aware of how information can be portrayed effectively on maps. This chapter will also help you better appreciate cartography as a crucial part of a geographic information system (GIS).

A review of the development of cartography sets the scene for the current state of the art and science in this field (Sect. 13.1). The principles and practices of cartography are presented to provide a clear rationale for the importance of map design in communicating relevant geographic information. Looking at the various types of maps and their construction allows you to consider the constraints on map design and the consequences for how data is portrayed on maps (Sect. 13.2). A review of the design and use of symbols, color, and type on maps illustrates the many possibilities and choices available to the mapmaker (Sects. 13.213.6). Relief portrayal techniques illustrate how data about a terrain surface can be used to create a three-dimensional representation of the physical environment (Sect. 13.7). The final sections cover the intricacies of map design and page layout (Sects. 13.8 and 13.9). Map production and reproduction are not covered here.

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Correspondence to Aileen Buckley .

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Buckley, A., Hardy, P., Field, K. (2022). Cartography. In: Kresse, W., Danko, D. (eds) Springer Handbook of Geographic Information. Springer Handbooks. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-53125-6_13

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