Skip to main content

System for the Measurement of sEMG and Angular Displacement of the Ankle-Foot Joint Complex for Muscle Co-activation Detection in the Diagnosis of Foot Drop Pathology

  • Conference paper
  • First Online:
AETA 2019 - Recent Advances in Electrical Engineering and Related Sciences: Theory and Application (AETA 2019)

Part of the book series: Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering ((LNEE,volume 685))

  • 609 Accesses

Abstract

The measurement of physiological variables for the assessment of pathologies is gaining a lot of strength and attention, even more so when it comes to wearable embedded systems able to offer comfort and precision in measurements. This work aimed to develop an electronic wearable sensing and wireless system that could measure the electrical activity of the Tibialis Anterior and Peroneus Longus muscles through bipolar surface electromyography; the system also identifies the muscle activations of antagonistic muscles, a phenomenon known as muscle co-activations. Sensing the angular displacement of the joint complex of the ankle in the sagittal and frontal planes through an Inertial Measurement Unit sensor system. A system with modular and smart architecture was designed and develop. It is based around five stages in charge of sensing, processing, and transmitting the data registers to a PC or a mobile device. The surface electromyography module is built around a two-channel amplifier sampling at 1 ksps/ch with a resolution of 10 bits; the angular displacement stage is based around an IMU sensor sampling at 1 ksps and 16 bits of resolution. Both data registers are transmitted wirelessly. A prototype with the architecture previously described was developed and tested. A statistical analysis of the data collected compared with commercial instruments was deployed, showing a Mean Square Error of \({\le }{\pm }5.5\%\) for the sEMG and an average error of \({\le }{\pm }1.5^{\circ }\) in the angular displacement measurements. The measurements made and the data verification protocol show that the equipment fully complies with all the technical and functional requirements of the project. Additionally, a record of muscle co-activation is presented, which can provide additional information, not only of the physiological state of the muscles but also the status of the pathology. By reducing the size of the device, improving the experimental setup and making small improvements to the hardware, the developed system opens a new panorama in the assessment and characterization of pathological conditions in real patients and therefore in the rehabilitation field.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this chapter

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or eBook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Chapter
USD 29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
eBook
USD 129.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as EPUB and PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
Hardcover Book
USD 169.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Durable hardcover edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info

Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout

Purchases are for personal use only

Institutional subscriptions

Similar content being viewed by others

Notes

  1. 1.

    Ez Read Jamar Goniometer - Manual medical goniometer.

  2. 2.

    ADInstruments Powerlab recording unit, Teaching Series - 26T model.

References

  1. Aldemir, C., Duygun, F.: New and unusual causes of foot drop. Med. Sci. - Int. Med. J. 6, 49–495 (2017)

    Google Scholar 

  2. Westhout, F.D., Paré, L.S., Linskey, M.E.: Central causes of foot drop: rare and underappreciated differential diagnoses. J. Spinal Cord Med. 30(1), 62–66 (2007)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Stegeman, D., Hermens, H.: Standards for surface electromyography: the European project surface EMG for non-invasive assessment of muscles (SENIAM). Roessingh Res. Dev. 108–112 (2007)

    Google Scholar 

  4. Hof, A.L.: EMG and muscle force: an introduction. Hum. Mov. Sci. 3(1–2), 119–153 (1984)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Merletti, R., Rainoldi, A., Farina, D.: Surface electromyography for noninvasive characterization of muscle. Electromyographie superficielle pour une caracterisation mesuree du muscle. Exercise Sport Sci. Rev. 29(1), 20–25 (2001)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Neblett, R.: Surface electromyographic (SEMG) biofeedback for chronic low back pain. Healthcare 4(2), 27 (2016)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Kutilek, P., Hybl, J., Kauler, J., Viteckova, S.: Prosthetic 6-DOF arm controlled by emg signals and multi-sensor system. In: Proceedings of 15th International Conference MECHATRONIKA (March 2017), pp. 1–5 (2012)

    Google Scholar 

  8. Massó, N., Rey, F., Romero, D., Gual, G., Costa, L., Germán, A.: Surface electromyography applications in the sport. Apunts Med. Esport 45(165), 121–130 (2010)

    Google Scholar 

  9. Cerone, G.L., Botter, A., Gazzoni, M.: A modular, smart, and wearable system for high density sEMG detection. IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 66(12), 3371–3380 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1109/TBME.2019.2904398

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Day, S.: Important factors in surface EMG measurement. Bortec Biomed. Ltd. 1–17 (2002)

    Google Scholar 

  11. Melaku, A., Kumar, D.K., Bradley, A.: Influence of inter-electrode distance on EMG, pp. 1082–1085, May 2005

    Google Scholar 

  12. Ghapanchizadeh, H., Ahmad, S.A., Ishak, A.J.: Effect of surface electromyography electrode position during wrist extension and flexion based on time and frequency domain analyses. Int. J. Control Theory Appl. 9(5), 2643–2650 (2016)

    Google Scholar 

  13. Frey-Law, L.A., Avin, K.G.: Muscle coactivation: a generalized or localized motor control strategy? (2013)

    Google Scholar 

  14. Aneri, M., Rutvij, H.: A review on applications of ambient assisted living. Int. J. Comput. Appl. 176(8), 1–7 (2017)

    Google Scholar 

  15. Beyaz, A.: Posture determination by using flex sensor and image analysis technique. Agric. Sci. Digest - Res. J. 37(04), 257–262 (2017)

    Google Scholar 

  16. Vyawahare, V.M., Pardhi, D.: Design of a prosthetic arm using flex. Int. J. Electron. Commun. Eng. Technol. 8(2), 1–6 (2017)

    Google Scholar 

  17. Masdar, A., Ibrahim, B.S.K.K., Hanafi, D., Jamil, M.M.A., Rahman, K.A.A.: Knee joint angle measurement system using gyroscope and flex-sensors for rehabilitation. In: BMEiCON 2013 - 6th Biomedical Engineering International Conference, pp. 5–9, October 2013

    Google Scholar 

  18. Khayani, S.B.: Development of wearable sensors for body joint angle measurement, p. 70, May 2011

    Google Scholar 

  19. Zhang, Z., Dong, Y., Ni, F., Jin, M., Liu, H.: A method for measurement of absolute angular position and application in a novel electromagnetic encoder system (2015)

    Google Scholar 

  20. Desa, H., Azfar, A.Z.: Study of inertial measurement unit sensor, May 2014

    Google Scholar 

  21. Kumar, K., Varghese, A., Reddy, P.K., Narendra, N., Swamy, P., Chandra, M.G., Balamuralidhar, P.: An improved tracking using IMU and vision fusion for mobile augmented reality applications. Int. J. Multimedia Appl. (IJMA) 6(5), 13–29 (2014)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Adcock, B., Hansen, A., Roman, B., Teschke, G.: Generalized sampling: stable reconstructions, inverse problems and compressed sensing over the continuum. Adv. Imaging Electron Phys. 182, 187–279 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-800146-2.00004-7

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Nordin, M.: Biomecanica Basica del Sistema Muscoesqueletico-Nordin.pdf (2004)

    Google Scholar 

  24. Ervilha, U.F., Graven-Nielsen, T., Duarte, M.: A simple test of muscle coactivation estimation using electromyography (2012)

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgment

This work was supported by the Faculty of Engineering and Electronic Engineering Program of Universidad El Bosque, with the research project PFI-2017-EL-011.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Cecilia Murrugarra .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

Copyright information

© 2021 Springer Nature Switzerland AG

About this paper

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this paper

Noriega, S., Rojas, M.C., Murrugarra, C. (2021). System for the Measurement of sEMG and Angular Displacement of the Ankle-Foot Joint Complex for Muscle Co-activation Detection in the Diagnosis of Foot Drop Pathology. In: Cortes Tobar, D., Hoang Duy, V., Trong Dao, T. (eds) AETA 2019 - Recent Advances in Electrical Engineering and Related Sciences: Theory and Application. AETA 2019. Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering, vol 685. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-53021-1_63

Download citation

Publish with us

Policies and ethics