Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most common type of primary kidney neoplasm. Though most masses are found incidentally and are asymptomatic, patients can still present with the classic triad of RCC – flank pain, hematuria, and palpable abdominal mass. Cross-sectional imaging with computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is most helpful for staging and diagnosis; however, the role of renal biopsy is expanding. Many patients, especially elderly and the comorbid, can be placed on active surveillance. Focal therapy ablation is utilized in some patients; however, surgery continues to be the gold standard therapy for renal mass. Partial nephrectomy is offered to appropriately selected patients with stage I tumors, while radical nephrectomy is reserved for patients with large and/or anatomically complex renal mass. Radiation and chemotherapy play a limited role in localized RCC treatment. Targeted therapy and immunotherapy are enjoying expanding indications in the RCC space.
Kidney cancer Active surveillance Focal ablation Partial nephrectomy Radical nephrectomy Adjuvant therapy Immunotherapy
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