High-Throughput Approaches to Establish Quantitative Process–Structure–Property Correlations in Ni-Base Superalloy
- 1.6k Downloads
A high-throughput approach for collecting microstructure and mechanical properties were developed to model the process–structure–property (PSP) correlations in polycrystalline Ni-based superalloy ME3. The semi-automated image processing algorithm captured the area fraction and size distribution of secondary and tertiary γ′ particles from scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of polished samples. The yield strength and elastic modulus were calculated with an automated algorithm using load-time-displacement data generated by microindentation. Thirty heat treatments were conducted to create various γ′ distributions which are the primary strengthening mechanism of Ni-based superalloys. The PSP correlations among the predictor and response variables were evaluated with regression models and validated with adj-R2 and residual standard error statistics. The PSP statistical models built by using high-throughput protocols align with the previous statistical and theoretical models.
KeywordsDisk superalloy Microindentation High-throughput approaches Process–structure–property correlation modeling
This work was supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No 1152716. Material and solutionizing heat treatments were conducted at NASA Glenn Research Center. Scanning electron micrographs were collected utilizing Center for Electron Microscopy and Analysis (CEMAS) at the Ohio State University. Microindentation experiments were conducted utilizing equipment maintained at the Materials for Optoelectronic Research (MORE) Center at Case Western Reserve University. The data required to reproduce these findings are available to download from https://github.com/CWRU-MSL/GammaDoublePrime and/or from the corresponding author upon request.
- 1.T. M. Pollock and S. Tin, “Nickel-Based Superalloys for Advanced Turbine Engines: Chemistry, Microstructure and Properties,” J. Propuls. Power, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 361–374, Mar. 2006, https://doi.org/10.2514/1.18239.
- 2.O.A. Ojo, N.L. Richards and M.C. Chaturvedi, “Contribution of constitutional liquation of gamma prime precipitate to weld HAZ cracking of cast Inconel 738 superalloy,” Scr. Mater., vol. 50, no. 5, pp. 641–646, Mar. 2004, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scriptamat. 2003.11. 025.
- 3.J. K. Tien and S. M. Copley, “The effect of orientation and sense of applied uniaxial stress on the morphology of coherent gamma prime precipitates in stress annealed nickel-base superalloy crystals,” Metall. Trans., vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 543–553, Feb. 1971, https://doi.org/10.1007/bf02663347.
- 4.R. R. Unocic et al., “Deformation Mechanisms in Ni-Base Disk Superalloys at Higher Temperatures,” in Superalloys 2008 (Eleventh International Symposium), 2008, pp. 377–385, https://doi.org/10.7449/2008/superalloys_2008_377_385.
- 5.C. Tian, G. Han, C. Cui and X. Sun, “Effects of stacking fault energy on the creep behaviors of Ni-base superalloy,” Mater. Des., vol. 64, pp. 316–323, Dec. 2014, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2014.08.007.
- 6.G. Tian, C. Jia, Y. Wen and B. Hu, “Effect of solution cooling rate on the γ′ precipitation behaviors of a Ni-base P/M superalloy,” J. Univ. Sci. Technol. Beijing Miner. Metall. Mater., vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 729–734, Dec. 2008, https://doi.org/10.1016/s1005-8850(08)60278-9.
- 7.T. P. Gabb, J. Gayda, J. Telesman, and A. Garg, “The Effects of Heat Treatment and Microstructure Variations on Disk Superalloy Properties at High Temperature,” in Superalloys 2008 (Eleventh International Symposium), 2008, pp. 121–130, https://doi.org/10.7449/2008/superalloys_2008_121_130.
- 8.N. Saunders, “Phase Diagram Calculations for Ni-Based Superalloys,” in Superalloys 1996 (Eighth International Symposium), 1996, pp. 101–110, https://doi.org/10.7449/1996/superalloys_1996_101_110.
- 9.S. L. Semiatin, S.-L. Kim, F. Zhang, and J. S. Tiley, “An Investigation of High-Temperature Precipitation in Powder-Metallurgy, Gamma/Gamma-Prime Nickel-Base Superalloys,” Metall. Mater. Trans. A, vol. 46, no. 4, pp. 1715–1730, Apr. 2015, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11661-015-2748-0.
- 10.T. P. Gabb et al., “Comparison of γ–γ′ Phase Coarsening Responses of Three Powder Metal Disk Superalloys,” p. 44, 2016.Google Scholar
- 11.D. B. Miracle, B. Majumdar, K. Wertz and S. Gorsse, “New strategies and tests to accelerate discovery and development of multi-principal element structural alloys,” Scr. Mater., vol. 127, pp. 195–200, Jan. 2017, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scriptamat.2016.08.001.
- 12.S. Antonov, M. Detrois, R. C. Helmink and S. Tin, “Precipitate phase stability and compositional dependence on alloying additions in γ–γ′–δ–η Ni-base superalloys,” J. Alloys Compd., vol. 626, pp. 76–86, Mar. 2015, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jallcom.2014.11.155.
- 13.T. Smith et al., “A quantifiable and automated volume fraction characterization technique for secondary and tertiary γ′ precipitates in Ni-based superalloys,” Mater. Charact., vol. 140, pp. 86–94, Jun. 2018, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matchar.2018.03.051.
- 14.T. Grosdidier, A Hazotte and A Simon, “Precipitation and dissolution processes in γ/γ′ single crystal nickel-based superalloys,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A, vol. 256, no. 1–2, pp. 183–196, Nov. 1998, https://doi.org/10.1016/s0921-5093(98)00795-3.
- 15.D. Blavette, E. Cadel and B. Deconihout “The Role of the Atom Probe in the Study of Nickel-Based Superalloys,” Mater. Charact., vol. 44, no. 1–2, pp. 133–157, Jan. 2000, https://doi.org/10.1016/s1044-5803(99)00050-9.
- 16.A. Khosravani, A. Cecen and S. R. Kalidindi “Development of high throughput assays for establishing process-structure-property linkages in multiphase polycrystalline metals: Application to dual-phase steels,” Acta Mater., vol. 123, pp. 55–69, Jan. 2017, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actamat.2016.10.033.
- 17.D. L. McDowell and S. R. Kalidindi, “The materials innovation ecosystem: A key enabler for the Materials Genome Initiative,” Mrs Bulletin 41.4 (2016): 326–337.Google Scholar
- 18.J. S. Weaver, A. Khosravani, A. Castillo, and S. R. Kalidindi, “High throughput exploration of process-property linkages in Al-6061 using instrumented spherical microindentation and microstructurally graded samples,” Integrating Mater. Manuf. Innov., vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 192–211, Dec. 2016, https://doi.org/10.1186/s40192-016-0054-3.
- 19.Y. F. Gu et al., “Development of Ni-Co-Base Alloys for High-Temperature Disk Applications,” in Superalloys 2008 (Eleventh International Symposium), 2008, pp. 53–61, https://doi.org/10.7449/2008/superalloys_2008_53_61.
- 20.S. Nafisi, A. Roccisano, R. Ghomashchi, and G. Vander Voort, “A Comparison between Anodizing and EBSD Techniques for Primary Particle Size Measurement,” Metals, vol. 9, no. 5, p. 488, May 2019, https://doi.org/10.3390/met9050488.
- 21.D. Phifer, L. Tuma, T. Vystavel, P. Wandrol, and R. J. Young, “Improving SEM Imaging Performance Using Beam Deceleration,” Microscopy Today 17.4 (2009): 40–49.Google Scholar
- 22.J. M. Sosa, D. E. Huber, B. Welk, and H. L. Fraser, “Development and application of MIPARTM: a novel software package for two- and three-dimensional microstructural characterization,” Integrating Mater. Manuf. Innov., vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 123–140, Dec. 2014, https://doi.org/10.1186/2193-9772-3-10.
- 23.P. Patidar, M. Gupta, S. Srivastava, and A. K. Nagawat, “Image De-noising by Various Filters for Different Noise,” Int. J. Comput. Appl., vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 45–50, Nov. 2010, https://doi.org/10.5120/1370-1846.
- 24.P. Bao, Lei Zhang, and Xiaolin Wu, “Canny edge detection enhancement by scale multiplication,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell., vol. 27, no. 9, pp. 1485–1490, Sep. 2005, https://doi.org/10.1109/tpami.2005.173.
- 25.H. Hertz, “Miscellaneous papers: Hertz, Heinrich, 1857–1894: Available: https://archive.org/details/cu31924012500306. [Accessed: 03-Feb-2020].
- 26.N. M. Senanayake, Y. Yang, A. K. Verma, R. H. French, and J. Carter, “An Automated Technique to Analyze Micro Indentation Load-Displacement Curve,” Chall. Mech. Time Depend. Mater. Fract. Fatigue Fail. Damage Evol. Vol. 2, pp. 115–122, 2020, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-29986-6_18.
- 27.D. C. Montgomery and G. C. Runger, Applied statistics and probability for engineers, Sixth edition. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons, Inc, 2014.Google Scholar
- 28.J. Benesty, J. Chen, Y. Huang, and I. Cohen, “Pearson Correlation Coefficient,” Noise Reduct. Speech Process., pp. 1–4, 2009, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-00296-0_5.
- 29.J. H. Friedman, “Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines,” Ann. Stat., vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 1–67, Mar. 1991, https://doi.org/10.1214/aos/1176347963.
- 30.J. Miles, “R Squared, Adjusted R Squared,” in Wiley StatsRef: Statistics Reference Online, American Cancer Society, 2014.Google Scholar
- 31.J. M. Bland and D. G. Altman, “Measurement error.,” BMJ, vol. 312, no. 7047, p. 1654, Jun. 1996, https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.312.7047.1654.
- 32.A. J. Ardell, “The effect of volume fraction on particle coarsening: theoretical considerations,” Acta Metall., vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 61–71, Jan. 1972, https://doi.org/10.1016/0001-6160(72)90114-9.
- 33.B. Flageolet, P. Villechaise, M. Jouiad, J. Méndez, and A. C. Ader, “Ageing characterization of the powder metallurgy superalloy n18,” Superalloys 2004 (2004): 371–379.Google Scholar
- 34.G. F. Bastin and G. D. Rieck, “Diffusion in the titanium-nickel system: I. occurrence and growth of the various intermetallic compounds,” Metall. Trans., vol. 5, no. 8, pp. 1817–1826, Aug. 1974, https://doi.org/10.1007/bf02644146.
- 35.R.J. Mitchell, M.C. Hardy, M. Preuss and S. Tin, “Development of γ’ Morphology in P/M Rotor Disc Alloys During Heat Treatment,” Superalloys 2004, 361–370.Google Scholar
- 36.A. Baldan, “Review Progress in Ostwald ripening theories and their applications to the γ′-precipitates in nickel-base superalloys Part II Nickel-base superalloys” J. Mater. Sci., vol. 37, no. 12, pp. 2379–2405, Jun. 2002, https://doi.org/10.1023/a:1015408116016.
- 37.D. Locq, P. Caron, S. Raujol, F. Pettinari-Sturmel, A. Coujou, and N. Clement, “On the Role of Tertiary γ′ Precipitates in the Creep Behaviour at 700°C of a PM Disk Superalloy,” in Superalloys 2004 (Tenth International Symposium), 2004, pp. 179–187, https://doi.org/10.7449/2004/superalloys_2004_179_187.
- 38.J. Oh et al, “Variations in overall- and phase-hardness of a new Ni-based superalloy during isothermal aging,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A, vol. 528, no. 19–20, pp. 6121–6127, Jul. 2011, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.msea.2011.03.115.
- 39.W. W. Milligan, E. L. Orth, J. J. Schirra, and M. F. Savage, “Effects of Microstructure on the High Temperature Constitutive Behavior of IN100,” in Superalloys 2004 (Tenth International Symposium), 2004, pp. 331–339, https://doi.org/10.7449/2004/superalloys_2004_331_339.
- 40.M.P. Jackson and R.C. Reed,“Heat treatment of UDIMET 720Li: the effect of microstructure on properties,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A, vol. 259, no. 1, pp. 85–97, Jan. 1999, https://doi.org/10.1016/s0921-5093(98)00867-3.