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Measurement Issues

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Part of the SpringerBriefs in Criminology book series (BRIEFSPOLICI)


This chapter includes an in-depth discussion of measurement issues associated with hate crime data collection. Examples are given from the UCR Hate Crime Statistics Program, the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS), and the systems that measure school-based hate crimes to show the impacts of these measurement issues. We begin by addressing issues that arise with the data collection methods, target populations, missing data, geographic scope, temporal issues, and units of analysis. Measurement issues concerning the determination of bias motivation and the offenses that are included as hate crimes are presented. The information that we provide in this chapter is designed to provide and understanding of the strengths and limitations of data collection systems for measuring and studying hate crime.


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    The FBI anticipates that all law enforcement agencies will transition to NIBRS by 2021 (FBI, 2019b).


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© 2021 The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG

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Pezzella, F.S., Fetzer, M.D. (2021). Measurement Issues. In: The Measurement of Hate Crimes in America. SpringerBriefs in Criminology(). Springer, Cham.

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  • Publisher Name: Springer, Cham

  • Print ISBN: 978-3-030-51576-8

  • Online ISBN: 978-3-030-51577-5

  • eBook Packages: Law and CriminologyLaw and Criminology (R0)

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