Moralising texts promoting maternal breastfeeding were omnipresent in the early modern period. But in the eighteenth century, chemical experiments on milk supplied Dutch physicians with new arguments for emphasising milk’s nutritious qualities, and the importance of breastmilk for an infant’s health. Learned societies stimulated medical men to investigate galactagogues—lactation-inducing substances. Thanks to chemistry, galactagogues based on cow’s milk, cheese and similar animal products were increasingly encouraged. Instrument-makers even introduced lactation technologies such as milk-pumps to the market. Although many parents continued to make up their own minds about how and what to nurse their child, Verwaal demonstrates that Dutch medical men invented innovative instruments and employed various strategies to promote the importance of mother’s milk and maternal breastfeeding.