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Remote Sensing for Monitoring Suspended Sediment Concentration in the Lower Ganges (Padma) River

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Towards Water Secure Societies

Abstract

Suspended Sediment Concentration (SSC) is a significant parameter in the hydrologic, morphologic, and ecosystem studies of large alluvial rivers of the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) delta. Traditional in situ measurement of SSC in the Lower Ganges River is challenging in terms of time, cost, and spatial coverage. This study investigated the applicability of open-access Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+) images in estimating the SSC of the Lower Ganges. Multiple-temporal Landsat 7 ETM+ images were processed to extract Digital Numbers (DN) of pixels corresponding to Bangladesh Water Development Board (BWDB)’s river measurement station, Mawa (SW93.5L). The DNs were converted to radiance and ultimately to top-of-atmosphere (ToA) reflectance. The ToA values for Landsat-7 bands 1–4, which sense electromagnetic radiation of 0.45–0.52, 0.52–0.60, 0.63–0.69, and 0.76–0.90 µm, respectively, were combined with corresponding measured values of SSC, between the years 2000 and 2012 for determination of statistical relationship between them. R2 for bands 1, 2, 3, and 4 were 0.64, 0.51, 0.44, and 0.67, respectively; showing that Coefficient of Determination (R2) value of band 4 presented the best relationship—therefore chosen as the best SSC indicator. Scatter plot of predicted SSC values from a polynomial equation based on band 4 against in situ values of SSC with 1:1 fit line generated strong positive coefficient of determination of 0.89 and Root Mean Square Error of 88.3 ppm. Using a polynomial model based on the band 4 data, spatial distribution maps and temporal variation of SSC, between the years 2000 and 2010, for monsoon and post-monsoon seasons were demonstrated and river cross-sectional analysis was performed.

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Correspondence to Mashrekur Rahman .

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Rahman, M., Islam, G.M.T., Rahman, M.M. (2021). Remote Sensing for Monitoring Suspended Sediment Concentration in the Lower Ganges (Padma) River. In: Ribbe, L., Haarstrick, A., Babel, M., Dehnavi, S., Biesalski, H.K. (eds) Towards Water Secure Societies. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-50653-7_14

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