1 Introduction

In the early 1970s, as the economic recovery in western countries gradually emerged, the service industry also developed and inspired many research teams to explore. In the development process, researchers in economics mainly focused on the nature of services, while those in management paid more attention to the application of theories, during which the concept of quality was introduced into field of services.

Professor Gronroos (1982) first proposed the concept of Customer Perceived Service Quality [1]. Gronroos held that quality of service was a subjective category, which depends on the comparison between consumers’ expectation of quality of service and the actual perceived level of service. Subsequently, more scholars carried out researches on service quality. Lehtinen (1982) et al. identified service quality as three components: interaction quality, entity quality and company quality [2]. Lewis and Booms (1983) believed that service quality was a tool which measured whether enterprise service level meet consumers’ expectations [3]. Gronroos (1984) divided quality of service into two parts, then defined them as technical quality and functional quality [1]. Parasuraman (1988) holds that quality of service is the difference between the level of quality of service actually perceived by consumers and the level of quality of service expected [4]. Leblanc and Nguyen (1988) listed service quality as five components, namely corporate image, internal organization, physical support of service production system, employee/customer interaction and customer satisfaction [5]. Hedval and Paltschik (1989) defined the quality of service as two dimensions, namely the willingness and ability to serve, the physical and psychological accessibility [6].

International Standardization Organization (ISO) defined service quality and formed the concept of service quality [7]: In the process that price competition in the market gradually changes to service quality competition, service quality becomes more and more important in the consumption process and becomes the first production factor of service enterprises. Service quality should meet the needs of consumers and the interests of other beneficiaries, so service providers need to consider more from the perspective of consumers and other beneficiaries. Service enterprises need to improve service quality and generate more added value through scientific management, development and utilization of new technologies.

Based on literature review and research, this paper concludes that service quality is generated by the actual contact between service providers and consumers, expressing consumers’ subjective feelings on the process of service experience. Service providers improve the quality of services through internal management and support systems.

This paper takes SERVQUAL model as the entry point to research service quality. It finds that the impact of service quality on consumers is mainly reflected in psychology, behavior, satisfaction, loyalty and other aspects, while the impact on service providers is mainly reflected in service equipment, technical support, employee behavior, corporate culture, product functional quality and after-sales service. According to the development of service industry in China and abroad, service enterprises are facing the problems and opportunities of service quality management. In this paper, through the modification of the service quality model by domestic and foreign scholars, combined with the theoretical method of engineering system, the structure of the service quality model is optimized, and the research and development of service quality are discussed and prospected.


2.1 Introduction to SERVQUAL Model

SERVQUAL (SQ) is the abbreviation of “Service Quality”. The model is an evaluation system that reflect consumers’ perceptions and expectations of the received services, and is applied to the measurement and marketing management of service quality. SERVQUAL model theory was formally proposed by Parasuraman, Zeithaml and Berry (PZB), three American marketing experts, in 1988, to measure consumers’ service perception. Its core theory is “service quality gap model”. Specifically, it’s the gap that between consumers’ actual perception of service quality and their expectation of service quality. SERVQUAL model is mainly composed of five dimensions and 22 items, namely, tangibility, reliability, responsiveness, assurance and empathy.

2.2 Development of SERVQUAL Model

SERVQUAL model theory was founded by Parasuraman, Zeithaml and Berry (PZB) in 1985, mainly used in the field of marketing. PZB research team established 10 measurement dimensions of service quality gap model to study consumers’ evaluation on the quality of services provided by service providers [8]. The 10 dimensions are reliability, sensitivity, convenience, competence, politeness, communication, trustworthiness, security, danger and empathy.

PZB (1988) three researchers conducted a comprehensive qualitative study on the meaning of service quality, and determined that service quality is the gap between consumers’ perception of service and service expectation [4] (as shown in Fig. 1), namely SQ (Service Quality) = P (Perception of Service) − e (Expectation of Service).

Fig. 1.
figure 1

Service quality assessment process

For further research and development of SERVQUAL model, PZB research team has found through many experiments that in the marketing service industry, the improvement of consumers’ service perception mainly includes the following five aspects:

  • Tangible: The physical structure of the equipment provided by the service, the associated service facilities and the appearance of the service personnel.

  • Reliability: Service providers provide consumers with the reliability and consistency of quality services and the ability to accurately fulfill service commitments.

  • Responsiveness: Service providers can provide services and responses to consumers in a timely manner.

  • Assurance: Service providers build rapport with consumers and consumer trust in the services provided.

  • Empathy: The extent to which service providers provide emotional care and extended emotional support to consumers.

Since consumers’ expectation of service quality will change over time, SERVQUAL model is used to track the dynamic change of service quality on a regular basis to reflect the trend of service value. PZB (1991) obtained that the five dimensions of SERVQUAL had a certain correlation through factor analysis, further optimized the SQ model, and then put the model into five independent customer samples for testing [9, 10]. The results show that SERVQUAL model is universal. Therefore, PZB established SQ as the core and standard of service quality measurement.

In the following researches, scholars repeated used SERVQUAL model and verified the applicability. Carman (1990) conducted scale tests in four scenarios: dental school patient clinic, business school placement center, tire shop and emergency hospital, and found that reliability, tangible and safety accounted for a high proportion of consumers’ service perception [11]. Cronin and Taylor (1994) conducted a survey on people using hospital services within 45 days, and used SERVQUAL scale to determine the relationship between customer satisfaction and service quality [12]. Finally, five dimensions and 22 variables were confirmed.

2.3 Use of SERVQUAL Model

SERVQUAL model typically contains five dimensions and 22 items. The distribution of the 22 project problems is as follows: Tangibility contains 4 project problems, Reliability contains 5 project problems, Assurance contains 4 project problems, Responsiveness contains 4 project problems, and Empathy contains 5 project problems. Each item contains an item question and item options on a Likert scale of order 7 or 5.

After the SERVQUAL test model passed the reliability and validity tests, questionnaires were distributed to the subjects. After the end of the test, the questionnaire was collected to study the collected effective data and carried out statistical calculation. The formula is as follows:

$$ {\rm{SQ}} = \mathop \sum \limits_{{{\rm{k}} = 1}}^{\rm{n}} {\rm{W}}_{\rm{k}} \mathop \sum \limits_{{{\rm{i}} = 1}}^{\rm{m}} (\overline{{\rm{P}_{\rm{i}} }} - \overline{{\rm{E}_{\rm{i}} }}) $$

In the formula above, k represents the kth service element, n represents a total of n service elements, \( {\rm{W}}_{\rm{k}} \) represents the weight of the kth service element, i represents the ith problem, m represents a total of m problems, \( \overline{{{\rm{P}}_{\rm{i}} }} \) represents the average sensory index value of the ith problem, \( \overline{{{\rm{E}}_{\rm{i}} }} \) represents the expected mean value of the ith problem, and SQ represents the final evaluation of service quality.

3 Application of SERVQUAL Model

3.1 Application Status

With development of the service industry, consumers pay more and more attention to service quality. Therefore, more and more scholars study service quality through the application of SERVQUAL model in service industry.

Through the research in ISI Web of Science (WOS) database, Taiwanese scholars Ya Lan WANG, Tainyi LUOR, Pin LUARN and Hsi Penglu (2015) discussed and analyzed 367 SCI and SSCI journal articles of SERVQUAL model in the past 15 years (1998–2013). The results showed that the research on application of SERVQUAL model was on the rise, and under influence of economic growth and government policies, applications in business management and corporate decision-making accounted for the largest proportion, followed by information systems and data management, then leisure and entertainment services, and finally health care services [13].

3.2 International Application of SERVQUAL Model

While applying SERVQUAL model, international researchers modified SERVQUAL model with the change of application field, and sorted out, extended and expanded the research results. The application of the model gradually expanded from business management to banking, library information management, medical care and other fields.

By using SERVQUAL model, the research team explored the development status of the industry, understood consumers’ preferences and behavioral intentions, and predicted future development trends. Baker and Crompton (2000) established hypotheses through a structural equation model and analyzed experimental data, and concluded that the perceived performance quality of the tourism industry had a greater impact on consumers’ behavioral intention than satisfaction [14]. Dabholkar, Shepherd and Thorpe (2000) used SERVQUAL model to conduct a longitudinal study of service design, and to understand and predict the dynamic change of service quality in the retail industry by establishing a chronological framework [15]. In the e-commerce industry, Devaraj, Ming and Kohli (2002) studied consumer satisfaction and preference in B2C e-commerce channels by establishing technology acceptance model, transaction cost analysis model and service quality model [16].

In addition, research team used SERVQUAL model to test consumers’ perception of service quality, and the results provided guidance for service providers in terms of service quality and service decision-making. Neha (2013) conducted a service evaluation test on consumers with the help of SERVQUAL model, and verified whether retail stores could improve service quality according to the gap between consumers’ expectations and perceptions [17]. Mobarakeh and Ghahnavieh (2015) used SERVQUAL model to study the customer service quality of a travel agency and proposed relevant service strategies to narrow the gap between service expectation and perception [18]. Palese and Usai (2018) used SERVQUAL model to collect social data to measure the service quality of community shopkeepers and help them to provide service strategies [19].

Research teams tested SERVQUAL model’s universality in service quality testing by using it in different industry domains. Arpita, Ceeba and Reena (2010) used SERVQUAL model to study the applicability of service quality evaluation of retail stores in northern India [20]. Vassiliadis, Fotiadis and Tavlaridou (2014) used SERVQUAL model to classify medical services provided by a public hospital in Greece, proving the universality and effectiveness of SERVQUAL model in measuring the quality of medical services [21]. Three scholars, Bansal, Gaur and Chauhan (2016), based on SERVQUAL model, researched the tourism items provided by e-commerce services and verified the universality of SERVQUAL model in evaluating the service quality of e-commerce providers [22].

In terms of resource allocation, research teams used SERVQUAL model to evaluate the service quality in the industry field, so as to reasonably and effectively invested and used resources for small and medium businesses and developing countries. Chakravarty (2011) conducted a service study on outpatient hospitals in India. Considering that the service operation of hospitals is limited by resources, SERVQUAL model was adopted to measure the service perception of consumers and provide targeted decisions for hospital service management [23]. Meesala and Paul (2016) used SERVQUAL model to evaluate the service quality of patients in 40 different private hospitals in Hyderabad, India, to provide service management strategies and guidelines for the better survival and development of their medical service enterprises [24].

3.3 Application of SERVQUAL Model in China

In this paper, the application of SERVQUAL model in China is summarized through the retrieval of Cnki database. 1651 articles collected in the past 20 years (1998–2019) were retrieved in the database, as shown in Fig. 2:

Fig. 2.
figure 2

SERVQUAL model application paper publishing data graph

According to the data graph, the application of SERVQUAL model increases gradually and tends to be flat. Its research fields are mainly business economy, business administration, quantitative economy and library information management. By searching the database of Cnki, this paper divides the applied articles into industry fields. The specific data are shown in Fig. 3:

Fig. 3.
figure 3

SERVQUAL model applies the paper category data graph

According to the data graph, SERVQUAL model is mainly applied in business economy management and digital information management in China, among which business economy and business administration account for the highest proportion, accounting for 17% and 16% respectively. The applied research in other service fields is not as extensive as in other countries. Through literature review and analysis, study believes that the reason is that China’s research on service quality starts late and China is in a developing country, which requires more resources to be invested in economic construction and information management. Therefore, the management of service quality in those area take relatively large proportions. In addition, due to the rise of the knowledge age and the Internet age, education services and e-commerce services are increasingly valued by people, and the demand and requirements for their service quality are also higher and higher, so the proportion of articles in this field is also increasing.

In Chinese literature, Zhisheng Hong et al. (2012) published “Study on the Research of Service Quality Management” [25], which was cited for 224 times, mainly introduced the research field of service quality and the application of SERVQUAL model, as well as the prospect of future dynamic changes of service quality and service management in the market.

Through the cited data in this paper, the study indicates that SERVQUAL model applies to different service fields in China. Li Cui (2010) et al. used SERVQUAL model to conduct data investigation and analysis on Chinese commercial Banks, discussed service quality issues, and put forward suggestions for improvement [26]. Meihong Zhu (2011) et al. adopted the modified SERVQUAL model to study the service quality of Chinese express delivery enterprises, and improved competitiveness of enterprises by improving service quality and strengthening service management [27]. Based on the background of sharing economy, Wenming Zuo (2018) et al. adopted the modified SERVQUAL model to study the service quality of online ride-hailing, and finally proposed management suggestions [28].

According to the literature data, SERVQUAL model also has been applied in other fields, and it has a large space for application. This model can provide service improvement directions for service providers with limited resources and help enterprises make management decisions and improve service quality.


4.1 Introduction of SERVPERF Model

With the increasing number of researches on the SERVQUAL model, SERVQUAL model is modified and optimized constantly, but the model still has some shortcomings: For example, measuring consumers’ expectation and perception of quality of service over the same time period lacks comparability, using the gap model to measure service perception results in the double calculation of quality of service expectations, SERVQUAL model needs to measure the perceived value and expected value of consumers, and the operation process is complicated.

Based on the shortcomings of SERVQUAL model, professor Cronin and Taylor (1992) further proposed SERVPERF (SP) model based on SERVQUAL model by testing and studying the four service industries including bank service, Agricultural pest control, dry cleaning service and fast food service [29]. In their study, the two professors showed that SERVPERF model was superior to SERVQUAL model in reliability and validity, and believed that the theoretical basis of SERVQUAL model was confused with the concept of customer service satisfaction, so service expectation in SERVQUAL model should be abandoned and service perception should be directly used to measure service quality.

Subsequently, many scholars also studied the service quality model and came to the conclusion that service expectation is weakened and service perception of consumers is used to represent service quality. Boulding (1993) et al. developed a behavior model of perceived quality of service through the Yebess framework, and found that different expectations had a negative effect on quality of service through the results of two tests, and service perception had a positive effect on its quality [30]. Hartline and Ferrell (1996) developed and tested the service employee management model, and the results showed that consumers’ perception of employee service was a direct factor affecting service quality [31]. The above scholars have shown that service perception can measure the support of service quality through researches.

SERVPERF model mainly measures quality of service through service performance, while SERVQUAL model mainly measures quality of service by the gap between consumers’ perception of service and their expectation of service. On basis of projects, SERVPERF model still maintains the five dimensions of SERVQUAL model and the system of 22 projects, but directly uses perception of consumers receiving services in practice as evaluation criteria.

4.2 Application of SERVPERF Model

Validated by many research, SERVPERF model has been proved to be practical and reliable in the service field. Compared with SERVQUAL model, SERVPERF model does not need to measure service expectations and is more convenient to use. Marshall and Smith (2000) discussed the application of SERVPERF model in community public services, and measured the experience and evaluation of community consumers on purchasing services through the scale coefficient of SERVPERF model [32]. Hossain and Islam (2013) studied the service performance of four private university libraries in Bangladesh through SERVPERF model [33]. Tan Le and Fitzgerald (2014) studied the service quality of two public hospitals in Vietnam through SERVPERF model, and concluded that assurance and empathy were the key factors for the service quality of hospitals [34]. Mahmoud (2015) used SERVPERF model to discuss the quality of service in Syrian universities [35].

The above studies show that SERVPERF model is widely used in many fields, has high validity and reliability, and can quickly and effectively analyze the factors of service quality.

4.3 Conclusion of Model Application

As for the evaluation of SERVQUAL model, PZB (1994) pointed out that SERVQUAL model measures consumers’ perceptions and expectations [36], and contains more information about service quality in the measurement process, which is more abundant than the SERVPERF model in terms of content and predicts the service trend. In addition, with the change of time, enterprise managers can understand the reasons for the change of consumers’ preference for services through the experimental data of SERVQUAL.

According to the corresponding research purposes, SERVPERF model can be selected for the current purposeful service quality test (results-oriented). SERVQUAL model can be used to study the dynamic change of quality of service (process-oriented).

5 Comprehensive Evaluation of Service Quality

5.1 Service Quality Evaluation Based on Fuzzy Theory

Fuzzy theory was first put forward in 1965 [37], which is used to satisfy people’s thinking process, provide relatively stable description, and define multiple, complex and ambiguous phenomena, mainly aiming at a number of management problems involving uncertainty in various industrial fields.

In SERVQUAL model, research tests usually adopt multi-order Likert scale, which uses clear and definite values to represent the feelings of subjects. However, in the process of actual service quality evaluation, consumers are based on fuzzy memory of service perception, combining subjective information with intangible feelings, and cannot flexibly and accurately provide certain values [38, 39]. So a more realistic approach to language assessment is used instead of clear Numbers.

The combination of SERVQUAL model and fuzzy theory conforms to the fuzziness of evaluators’ subjective judgment and can better provide improvement strategies for enterprise management. Wu wanyi (2004) et al. used fuzzy language framework and SERVQUAL measurement scale to effectively link the market position and service quality strategies of five large hospitals in Tainan [40]. Aydin and Pakdil (2008), through the combined application of fuzzy theory and SERVQUAL model, measured and summarized the expectation and perception of international airline passengers for service quality, and provided enterprise decision makers with improvement projects and suggestions for service [41]. Braendle, Sepasi and Rahdari (2014) established an improved 7-order fuzzy SERVQUAL scale to measure the service quality of Banks by issuing questionnaires to their bank customers, measuring the weight of the bank’s service items, perceived performance and expected performance [42].

According to most literature studies, the combination of SERVQUAL model scale and Fuzzy theory is applicable in many service industries, and can describe consumers’ perceptions and expectations of service quality more accurately, which is conducive to improving the effectiveness of enterprise management.

5.2 Service Quality Evaluation Based on QFD

Quality function deployment (QFD) is mainly through listening for the voice and opinions of consumers, taking consumer demand as the main factor of service organization, and expanding service quality into products, processes and production systems, so as to realize the full deployment of quality functions for services [43]. This functional system converts consumer demand information into actions and designs to maximize consumer satisfaction [44]. The main feature of QFD is that it can reduce the design cost and time. Through a multi-level process transformation, the voice of consumers can be transformed into specific service contents [45].

Through SERVQUAL model, researchers obtain the service demand of consumers and establish the basis for QFD model. QFD model summarizes the service characteristics of consumers through consumer demand, lists the service requirements and service characteristics into a relational matrix, and discusses the strength of the relationship between consumer demand and service characteristics. Yildirim, Ozcan (2019) et al. conducted a study on the quality of public service in Ardahan [46], evaluating the quality of service and providing improvement strategies through the gap between local citizens’ actual experience perception and expectation of service area.

QFD model takes the weight ratio of competing companies to consumer demand as a reference to further obtain important service characteristics. By using SERVQUAL model and fuzzy quality function deployment, scholars Zai Zai, Youzhen Jin and Zhongguo Quan (2016) studied the consumer services of Samsung and LG’s electronics companies and proposed improvements [47].

Through research of most literatures, the combination of SERVQUAL model and QFD method can provide a deeper understanding of the service demand characteristics of consumers. Research uses SERVQUAL model to obtain the service demand of consumers and converts it into service characteristics through QFD, which improves the efficiency of service design and improvement.

5.3 Service Quality Evaluation Based on Kano Model

Professor Noriaki Kano (1984), from Tokyo institute of technology, formally proposed Kano model [48], which classified and prioritized service demands according to the objective functions of product service and the subjective experience of consumers. Through the influence of product quality attributes of different categories on consumer satisfaction, professor Noriaki Kano divided the product service quality characteristics into five categories: basic demand, expectation demand, charm demand, indifference demand and reverse demand.

Research through the five dimensions of SERVQUAL model and 22 project measures of consumer demand, again after induction of Kano model, through the perspective of service quality for service requirements in terms of classification, draws service priority arrangement and the weight ratio of the project, the last modification design for the high priority services.

Vassiliadis, Tavlaridou and Fotiadis (2014) surveyed the service quality evaluation of Greek public secondary hospitals by patients [49], obtained the key attributes of patient satisfaction and behavioral intention and reasonably allocated limited resources for the service quality of hospitals.

Tingyi Jiang and Hongpeng Yang (2018) established a hybrid model, mainly combines SERVQUAL model, Kano model and Refined Kano model [50]. The team proposed differentiated service strategies by studying the owner services of property companies. This strategy can effectively solve the problem of communication and cognition of property disputes and maintain the competitiveness of property companies to a certain extent.

In the above studies, SERVQUAL model and Kano model were combined to conduct questionnaire experiments, and the service types and quality attributes of consumers were classified to obtain the most influential service items. Based on this, strategy improvement and resource allocation of enterprise services were carried out.

6 Summary and Discussion

6.1 Service Quality Research Model

Through literature review and practical case studies, this paper improves and modifies the previous research model of service quality, as shown in Fig. 4:

Fig. 4.
figure 4

Service quality research model

First of all, according to the psychology and behavior of consumers, the research obtains the service requirement of consumers, which determines the content of relevant services, and service mechanism emerges accordingly. In the process of interaction between services and consumers, actual quality of services is reflected by quality of functions and technologies, and affects psychological and behavioral characteristics of consumers. Secondly, after receiving the service, consumers have a psychological evaluation of their service, generate satisfaction and define the quality of the service, and set expectations for receiving similar services. Its satisfaction will affect consumers’ loyalty to the service and affect to consumers’ behavior and characteristics. In the end, this paper studies the gap between consumers’ service expectation and actual service perception to obtain the service quality evaluation, and then applies the research method of engineering system to obtain the key factors in the service, so as to improve the service items in the functional quality and technical quality.

6.2 Study Quality of Service from the Angle of Science and Service Content

SERVQUAL model is developed based on the marketing domain and then applied to various service domains. This model mainly uses psychological experiment method to carry on the empirical surveys, uses structural equation, multi-level linear regression equation and so on mathematical model to carry on the statistics. In the process of service design and system optimization, SERVQUAL model is integrated with fuzzy mathematics, system simulation, DEA and other system engineering methods, providing reference for improving service quality.

In database search statistics, SERVQUAL model has developed from traditional enterprises to new service industries. Most of the research focus on e-commerce services, tourism services, logistics services, medical services, education services, catering services, hotel services and government management, and are gradually expanding. In different service fields, SERQUAL model is evaluated according to service content, service requirement and service quality, providing enterprise managers with comprehensive consideration of resource management.

6.3 Relationship Between Service Quality and Customer Satisfaction, Behavior and Loyalty

Service quality and customer satisfaction have different structural concepts, but they are interrelated. Because consumer satisfaction is formed through the perception of service quality and provides a basis for the improvement of service quality. However, in contrast, service quality is considered to be a relatively high content of actual service cognition, while consumer satisfaction tends to be more emotional. In the process of research, it is found that service quality is one of driving factors influencing consumer satisfaction, and different levels of service quality have different influences on satisfaction, while consumer satisfaction will lead to changes in attitude and purchase intention.

Consumers’ loyalty is caused by the synergy of perceived service quality, personal willingness and social influence. Therefore, the improvement of customer loyalty should be considered from various aspects. Research find that improving service quality and increasing consumption interaction can promote consumer behavior, indicating that consumer behavior is positively correlated with service quality.

There is a certain correlation between service quality and customer satisfaction, behavior and loyalty. In different research fields and service contents, discussion and research can be conducted according to cultural differences, education level, age, income level and other factors of consumers. In order to further deepen the relationship between the four, it is necessary to explore dynamic change of new and old consumers on service quality, influence between service quality and other factors, and change of perceived difference of service quality.

6.4 Comprehensive Evaluation of Extended Service Scale

In service quality evaluation, many researchers use total quality management system (TQM), system simulation, critical incident technique (CIT), quality function deployment (QFD) and other methods to evaluate quality. Although SERVQUAL model is still the main method in study of service quality. But in China, the comprehensive development and expansion are few, so study of service quality model needs further innovation. In future exploration, quality of service model and engineering system model are developed universally, the structure of quality of service model can be unified, and the key factors of quality of service research can be studied by using conventional enterprise indicators.

According to different regions and national conditions, research on service quality has potential value. In regions with limited resources, research can guide small and medium-sized enterprises to make effective investment in service quality and provide decision planning for enterprise leaders. In developing countries, the study provides recommendations for improving service quality in different service sectors, provides policy guidelines for governments, and provides more value for market and society.

6.5 Conclusion

According to the development of service quality research, this paper takes SERVQUAL model as the entry point to expand its application in service field. Based on relevant literature on service quality, this study finds that relevant factors affecting service quality mainly include the psychology, behavior and satisfaction of consumers, as well as the functional and technical services of service providers. Through collecting literature data from domestic and foreign databases, it indicates that SERVQUAL model is widely used in the field of business management and digital information. By comparing the applications of SERVQUAL and SERVPERF models, it finds that SERVQUAL model is more informative and can influence the development trend of service field. Through the research of SERVQUAL model combined with engineering system model, it is found that the integrated model can effectively evaluate service quality, guide service enterprises to make reasonable management decisions and resource investment.

This paper summarizes the research of SERVQUAL model on service quality, and finds that SERVQUAL model is universal, scientific and instructive in application. SERVQUAL model can intuitively evaluate the service perception of consumers and reflect the key factors influencing service quality. Through data observation, the test reliability and validity of SERVQUAL comprehensive model are very high, and scientific theories are used to conduct data statistics and analysis to help service enterprises accurately find service demand points. In applied research in different regions and countries, SERVQUAL model can guide small and medium-sized enterprises to make effective investment, provide reasonable resource allocation strategies and service management policies for national governments.

Above all, service quality and SERVQUAL model has application value for service companies and government agencies, has a guiding value for the development of economy and social management. In the future research development, comprehensive research on service quality can give full play to greater potential and value in various service industries.