Skip to main content

Users’ and Experts’ Evaluation of TARGET: A Serious Game for Mitigating Performance Enhancement Culture in Youth

Part of the Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing book series (AISC,volume 1192)


This paper presents both the experts and users evaluation results of the alpha version of TARGET (anTi-doping AwaReness Game for hEalthy lifestyle), a Serious Game for supporting the Anti-Doping Awareness for a Healthy Lifestyle. The game has been designed and implemented in the context of GAME (A serious Game Approach in Mitigating performance Enhancement culture in youth) which is an Erasmus + project. Particularly, the paper briefly presents the design and content of the serious game, along with the technological solution, which is based on the well-known Unity 3D platform in combination with Fungus plugin, and then presents the findings of the Alpha Version Users’ and Experts’ Evaluation of the game.

According to the evaluation results, Lund’s results are very satisfying indicating a simple and easy to use and learn user interface and users believe that the game is useful for them, and on the other hand, EGameFlow results are also satisfying, despite the fact that Social Interaction is below average but this kind of games do not include interaction between users, although Immersion is low. Combining this result with the open-ended questions about the negative aspects the result might be the long dialogues that the user meets during the gaming experience.


  • Serious games
  • Anti-doping
  • Sports
  • Unity 3D

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Buying options

USD   29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-49932-7_15
  • Chapter length: 11 pages
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
USD   269.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • ISBN: 978-3-030-49932-7
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
Softcover Book
USD   349.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Fig. 1.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 5.


  1. Baron, D.A., Martin, D.M., Abol Magd, S.: Doping in sports and its spread to at-risk populations: an international review. World Psychiatry Off. J. World Psychiatr. Assoc. WPA 6, 118–123 (2007)

    Google Scholar 

  2. Caperton, I.: Video Games and Education. OECD Background Paper for OECD-ENLACES Expert Meeting (2007)

    Google Scholar 

  3. Chan, D.KC., Lentillon-Kaestner, V., Dimmock, J., Donovan, R., Keatley, D. Hardcastle, S., Hagger, M.: Self-Control, self-regulation, and doping in sport: a test of the strength-energy model. J. Sport Exerc. Psychol. 37, 199–206 (2015).

  4. Christou, M., A. Christou, P., Markozannes, G., Tsatsoulis, A., Mastorakos, G., Tigas, S.: Effects of anabolic androgenic steroids on the reproductive system of athletes and recreational users: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Sports Med. 47 (2017).

  5. De Hon, O., Kuipers, H., van Bottenburg, M.: Prevalence of doping use in elite sports: a review of numbers and methods. Sports Med 45(1), 57–69 (2015)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  6. Laure, P.: Epidemiologic approach of doping in sport: a review. J. Sports Med. Phys. Fitness 37(3): 218–224 (1997)

    Google Scholar 

  7. Frati, P., Busardò, F.P., Cipolloni, L., Dominicis, E.D., Fineschi, V.: Anabolic androgenic steroid (AAS) related deaths: autoptic, histopathological and toxicological findings. Curr. Neuropharmacol. 2015(13), 146–159 (2015)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  8. Nielsen, J., Molich, R.: Heuristic evaluation of user interfaces. In: Proceedings of the ACM CHI 1990 Conference, Seattle, WA, 1–5 April, pp. 249–256 (1990)

    Google Scholar 

  9. Ntoumanis, N., Ng, J.Y.Y., Barkoukis, V., Backhouse, S.: Personal and Psychosocial Predictors of Doping Use in Physical Activity Settings: A Meta-Analysis. Sports medicine (Auckland, N.Z.). 44 (2014).

  10. Erickson, K., McKenna, J., Backhouse, S.H.: A qualitative analysis of the factors that protect athletes against doping in sport. Psychol. Sport Exerc. 16, 149–155 (2015)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  11. Michie, S., West, R., Campbell, R., Brown, J., Gainforth, H.L.: ABC of Behaviour Change Theories. Silverback Publishing, London (2014)

    Google Scholar 

  12. Treviño-Guzmán, Pomales-García: How can a serious game impact student motivation and learning? In: Industrial and Systems Engineering Research Conference, 2014, Montreal, IIE, Norcross (2014)

    Google Scholar 

Download references


This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This publication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein.

The authors of this research would like to thank GAME team who generously shared their time, experience, and materials for the purposes of this project.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Thrasyvoulos Tsiatsos .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

Copyright information

© 2021 Springer Nature Switzerland AG

About this paper

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this paper

Stylianidis, P., Chaldogeridis, A., Politopoulos, N., Barkoukis, V., Tsiatsos, T. (2021). Users’ and Experts’ Evaluation of TARGET: A Serious Game for Mitigating Performance Enhancement Culture in Youth. In: Auer, M.E., Tsiatsos, T. (eds) Internet of Things, Infrastructures and Mobile Applications. IMCL 2019. Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, vol 1192. Springer, Cham.

Download citation

  • DOI:

  • Published:

  • Publisher Name: Springer, Cham

  • Print ISBN: 978-3-030-49931-0

  • Online ISBN: 978-3-030-49932-7

  • eBook Packages: EngineeringEngineering (R0)