Gamification Elements on Social Live Streaming Service Mobile Applications

  • Franziska ZimmerEmail author
  • Katrin Scheibe
  • Hantian Zhang
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 12194)


Social live streaming services (SLSSs), a kind of synchronous social networking service, are slowly but surely becoming a part of people’s daily lives. To keep users interested, a wide range of gamification elements are implemented on these services, increasing the user engagement and changing their behavior. This study examined 20 different SLSS mobile applications and the applied gamification elements. A literature review as well as a content analysis were used to find appropriate SLSS apps and game elements. What kind of mechanics can be found on SLSS mobile apps and how many are implemented on each system? On three of the observed apps we could identify all game elements. Chinese SLSS apps are the most gamified ones. On Ustream, no game element is implemented. The game mechanics following others as well as customization are the most often applied; capturing a moment of a stream is the least often implemented.


Social live streaming service Gamification Content analysis Mobile application 


  1. 1.
    Blumler, J.G., Katz, E.: The Uses of Mass Communications: Current Perspectives on Gratifications Research. Sage, Newbury Park (1973)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Browne, J.T., Batra, B.: Twickle: growing Twitch streamer’s communities through gamification of word-of-mouth referrals. In: Proceedings of TVX 2018, pp. 149–154. ACM, New York (2018)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Chen, C., Lin, Y.: What drives live-stream usage intention? The perspective of flow, entertainment, social interaction and endorsement. Telematics Inform. 35, 293–303 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Deterding, S.: Gamification: designing for motivation. Interactions 19(4), 14–17 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Deterding, S., Dixon, D., Khaled, R., Nacke, L.: From game design elements to game-fulness: defining “gamification”. In: Proceedings of the 15th International Academic MindTrek Conference: Envisioning Future Media Environments, pp. 9–15. ACM, New York (2011)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Deterding, S., Nacke, L.E., Dixon, D.: Gamification: toward a definition. In: Proceedings of the 29th CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, pp. 1–4. ACM, New York (2011)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Dicheva, D., Dichev, C., Agrev, G., Angelova, G.: Gamification in education: a systematic mapping study. Educ. Technol. Soc. 18(3), 74–88 (2015)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Elo, S., Kyngäs, H.: The qualitative content analysis. J. Adv. Nurs. 62(1), 107–115 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Friedländer, M.B.: Streamer motives and user-generated content on social live-streaming services. J. Inf. Theory Pract. 5(1), 65–84 (2017)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Gros, D., Wanner, B., Hackenholt, A., Zawadzki, P., Knautz, K.: World of streaming. Motivation and gratification on Twitch. In: Meiselwitz, G. (ed.) SCSM 2017. LNCS, vol. 10282, pp. 44–57. Springer, Cham (2017). Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hamari, J.: Do badges increase user activity? A field experiment on effects of gamification. Comput. Hum. Behav. 71, 469–478 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hamari, J., Hassan, L., Dias, A.: Gamification, quantified-self or social networking? Matching users’ goals with motivational technology. User Model. User-Adap. Inter. 28(1), 35–74 (2018). Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hamari, J., Koivisto, J.: Social motivations to use gamification: an empirical study of gamifying exercise. In: Proceedings of the 21st European Conference on Information Systems, pp. 1–13. Association for Information Systems, Atlanta (2013)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hamari, J., Koivisto, J., Sarsa, S.: Does gamification work? – a literature review of empirical studies on gamification. In: Proceedings of the 47th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, Big Island, pp. 3025–3034. IEEE (2014)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hamari, J., Sjöblom, M.: What is eSports and why do people watch it? Internet Res. 27(2), 211–232 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Hilvert-Bruce, Z., Neill, J.T., Sjöblom, M., Hamari, J.: Social motivations of live-streaming viewer engagement on Twitch. Comput. Hum. Behav. 84, 58–67 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Hofstede Insights: Country Comparison of China and USA.,the-usa/. Accessed 27 Jan 2020
  18. 18.
    Hsieh, H.-F., Shannon, S.E.: Three approaches to qualitative content analysis. Qual. Health Res. 15(9), 1277–1288 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Corcione, A., Tardo, F.: IEEE via PR Newswire: Everyone’s a gamer – IEEE experts predict gaming will be integrated into more than 85 percent of daily tasks by 2020 (2014).—ieee-experts-predict-gaming-will-be-integrated-into-more-than-85-percent-of-daily-tasks-by-2020-247100431.html
  20. 20.
    Ilhan, A., Fietkiewicz, K.J.: Learning for a healthier lifestyle through gamification: a case study of fitness tracker applications. In: Buchem, I., Klamma, R., Wild, F. (eds.) Perspectives on Wearable Enhanced Learning (WELL), pp. 333–364. Springer, Cham (2019). Scholar
  21. 21.
    Izumi, T., Tarumi, H., Kagawa, E., Yaegashi, R.: An experimental live streaming of an ice hockey game with enhancement of mutual awareness. In: Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Collaboration Technologies, pp. 22–25. Information Processing Society, Hokkaido (2012)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Katz, E., Blumler, J.G., Gurevitch, M.: Utilization of mass communication by the individual. In: Blumler, J.G., Katz, E. (eds.) The Uses of Mass Communications: Current Perspectives on Gratification Research, pp. 19–31. Sage, Thousand Oaks (1974)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Koivisto, J., Hamari, J.: Demographic differences in perceived benefits from gamification. Comput. Hum. Behav. 35, 179–188 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Koivisto, J., Hamari, J.: The rise of motivational information systems: a review of gamification literature. Int. J. Inf. Manage. 45, 191–210 (2019)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Krippendorff, K.: Content Analysis: An Introduction to Its Methodology, 3rd edn. Sage, New York (2012)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Kumar, J.: Gamification at work: designing engaging business software. In: Marcus, A. (ed.) DUXU 2013. LNCS, vol. 8013, pp. 528–537. Springer, Heidelberg (2013). Scholar
  27. 27.
    Lu, Z., Xia, H., Heo, S., Wigor, D.: You watch, you give, and you engage: a study of live streaming practices in China. In: Proceedings of the 2018 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, pp. 1–13. ACM, New York (2018)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Marszalek, W.: Introduction to live-streaming in China (2018).
  29. 29.
    Matallaoui, A., Koivisto, J., Hamari, J., Zarnekow, R.: How effective is ‘exergamification’? A systematic review on the effectiveness of gamification features in exergames. In: Proceedings of the 50th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, pp. 3316–3325. IEEE Computer Society, Washington (2017)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    McQuail, D.: Mass Communication Theory. Sage, London (1983)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Pires, K., Simon, G.: YouTube live and Twitch: a tour of user-generated live streaming systems. In: Proceedings of the 6th ACM Multimedia Systems Conference, pp. 225–230. ACM, New York (2015)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Ryan, R.M., Deci, E.L.: Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. Am. Psychol. 55(1), 68–78 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Sailer, M., Hense. J.U., Mandl, H., Klevers, M.: Psychological perspectives on motivation through gamification. Interact. Des. Architecture(s) J. 19, 28–37 (2013)Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Sailer, M., Hense, J.U., Mayr, S.K., Mandl, H.: How gamification motivates: an experimental study of the effects of specific game design elements on psychological need satisfaction. Comput. Hum. Behav. 69, 371–380 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Scheibe, K.: The impact of gamification in social live streaming services. In: Meiselwitz, G. (ed.) SCSM 2018. LNCS, vol. 10914, pp. 99–113. Springer, Cham (2018). Scholar
  36. 36.
    Scheibe, K., Meschede, C., Göretz, J., Stock, W.G.: Giving and taking gratifications in a gamified social live streaming service. In: Proceedings of the 5th European Conference on Social Media, pp. 264–273. Academic Conferences and Publishing Limited, Reading (2018)Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Scheibe, K., Zimmer, F.: Game mechanics on social live streaming service websites. In: Proceedings of the 52nd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, pp. 1486–1495. HICSS (ScholarSpace), Honolulu (2019)Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Siutila, M.: The gamification of gaming streams. In: Proceedings of the 2nd International GamiFIN Conference, pp. 131–140. CEUR-WS (2018)Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Sjölblom, M., Hamari, J.: Why do people watch others play video games? An empirical study on the motivation of Twitch users. Comput. Hum. Behav. 75, 985–996 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Strmečki, D., Bernik, A., Radošević, D.: Gamification in e-learning: introducing gamified design elements into e-learning systems. J. Comput. Sci. 11(12), 1108–1117 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Thiebes, S., Lins, S., Basten, D.: Gamifying information systems: a synthesis of gamification mechanics and dynamics. In: Proceedings of the 22nd European Conference on Information Systems, pp. 1–17. Association for Information Systems, Atlanta (2014)Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Wilk, S., Wulffert, D., Effelsberg, W.: On influencing mobile live video broadcasting users. In: Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on Multimedia, pp. 403–406. IEEE Computer Society, Washington, D.C. (2015)Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Wolf, T., Weiger, W.H., Hammerschmidt, M.: Gamified digital services: how gameful experiences drive continued service usage. In: Proceedings of the 51st Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, pp. 1187–1196. IEEE Society, Washington, D.C. (2018)Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Zichermann, G., Cunningham, C.: Gamification by Design: Implementing Game Mechanics in Web and Mobile Apps. O’Reilly Media, Sebastopol (2011)Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Zimmer, F., Scheibe, K., Stock, W.G.: A model for information behavior research on social live streaming services (SLSSs). In: Meiselwitz, G. (ed.) SCSM 2018. LNCS, vol. 10914, pp. 429–448. Springer, Cham (2018). Scholar
  46. 46.
    Zimmer, F., Fietkiewicz, K.J., Stock, W.G.: Law infringements in social live streaming services. In: Tryfonas, T. (ed.) HAS 2017. LNCS, vol. 10292, pp. 567–585. Springer, Cham (2017). Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Franziska Zimmer
    • 1
    Email author
  • Katrin Scheibe
    • 1
  • Hantian Zhang
    • 2
  1. 1.Heinrich Heine University DüsseldorfDüsseldorfGermany
  2. 2.Sheffield Hallam UniversitySheffieldUK

Personalised recommendations