Regional Trade and Security Cooperation: A Case Study of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS)
- 193 Downloads
The chapter critically examines ECOWAS and its efforts to strengthen regional trade and security cooperation in West Africa. It analyses four key factors: firstly, the trade and security frameworks that ECOWAS has adopted since it was established and how the frameworks are contributing to facilitating regional trade cooperation; secondly, the performance of ECOWAS in preventing and managing conflicts within the region; thirdly, the approaches used in aligning the organisation’s trade and security initiatives so that they can mutually reinforce each other and fourthly, the factors that undermine trade and security initiatives in the region and how they could be overcome.
- Adkission, Stephen C. 1984. Integration in West Africa: An empirical Examination of ECOWAS. Published thesis, Portland State University.Google Scholar
- Aggad, Faten, and Luckystar Miyandazi. 2017. Understanding ECOWAS Efforts in Promoting a Governance Agenda. ECDPM Policy Brief.Google Scholar
- Aljazeera.com. 2019. New African Currency: Will the ‘ECO’ Replace the CFA Franc? See https://www.aljazeera.com/ajimpact/african-currency-eco-replace-cfa-franc190711162229142.html.
- Annan, Nancy. 2014. Violent Conflicts and Civil Strife in West Africa: Causes, Challenges and Prospects. Stability: International Journal of Security and Development 3 (1): Art. 3. http://doi.org/10.5334/sta.da.
- Bangura, Ibrahim. 2016. We Can’t Eat Peace: Youth, Sustainable Livelihood and the Peacebuilding Process in Sierra Leone. Journal for Peacebuilding and Development 11 (2): 37–50.Google Scholar
- Bangura, Ibrahim. 2017. A Call for Constructive Engagement: Youth, Violence, and Peacebuilding in the Mano River Basin Area. Special Issue: African Youth—Generation Next for Peacebuilding? Kujenga Amani, African Peacebuilding Network, USA.Google Scholar
- ECOWAS. 1975. Treaty of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS). Abuja, Nigeria: Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS).Google Scholar
- ECOWAS. 1979. Protocol Relating to the Movement of Persons, Residence and Establishment. Economic Community of West African States, Abuja, Nigeria.Google Scholar
- ECOWAS. 1986. Supplementary Protocol on the Second Phase (Right of Residence) of the Protocol on Free Movement of Persons, the Right of Residence and Establishment. Economic Community of West African States, Abuja, Nigeria.Google Scholar
- ECOWAS. 1990. Supplementary Protocol A/SP 2/5/90 on the Implementation of the Third Phase (Right of Establishment) of the Protocol on Free Movement of Persons, the Right of Residence and Establishment. Abuja, Nigeria.Google Scholar
- ECOWAS. 1993. Revised ECOWAS Treaty. ECOWAS, Abuja, Nigeria.Google Scholar
- ECOWAS. 1999. Protocol Relating to the Mechanism for Conflict Prevention, Management, Resolution, Peacekeeping and Security. Abuja, Nigeria: Economic Community of West African States.Google Scholar
- ECOWAS. 2001. Protocol on Democracy and Good Governance, Supplementary to the Protocol Relating to the Mechanism for Conflict Prevention, Management, Resolution, Peacekeeping and Security. Abuja, Nigeria.Google Scholar
- ECOWAS. 2008. The ECOWAS Conflict Prevention Framework. Abuja, Nigeria: Economic Community of West African States.Google Scholar
- ECOWAS. 2019. ECOWAS Launched Plans of Action for Its Conflict Prevention Framework. Economic Community of West African States. See http://www.ecowas.int/ecowas-launches-plans-of-action-for-its-conflict-preventionframework/.
- ECOWAS and United Nations Economic Commission for Africa. 2015. ECOWAS at 40: An Assessment of Progress Towards Regional Integration in West Africa. ECOWAS and the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA).Google Scholar
- Edeko, Sunday Atawodi. 2011. The Proliferation of Small Arms and Light Weapons in Africa: A Case Study of the Niger Delta in Nigeria. Sacha Journal of Environmental Studies 1 (2): 55–80.Google Scholar
- Engel, Jakob, and Marie-Agnès Jouanjean. 2015. Political and Economic Constraints to the ECOWAS Regional Economic Integration Process and Opportunities for Donor Engagement. Overseas Development Institute, UK.Google Scholar
- Francis, David. 2013. The Regional Impact of the Armed Conflict and French Intervention in Mali. Oslo, Norway: Norwegian Peacebuilding Resource Centre.Google Scholar
- Kara, Yildiz. 2008. Trade as a Tool of Diplomacy and Global Security. Perceptions 13 (2): 65–90.Google Scholar
- Karaki, Karim, and Elke Verhaeghe. 2017. Understanding ECOWAS Trade and Trade Facilitation: Advancing Economic Integration One Hurdle at a Time. European Centre for Development Policy Management.Google Scholar
- Kwaja, Chris. 2012. Confronting the Challenges of Small Arms and Light Weapons. West Africa Insight.Google Scholar
- Mano River Union. 2016. A Study on the Effects of the Ebola Virus Disease on Female Entrepreneurs Along Border Regions of Liberia and Sierra Leone. Freetown, Sierra Leone.Google Scholar
- Omeje, Kenneth. 2007. Conflicts in West Africa. In Sorting Out the Mess: Wars, Conflicts & Conflict Management in West Africa, ed. W. Feichtinger and G. Hainzl, 1–38. Vienna: Druck und Endfertigung.Google Scholar
- Rogan, James et al. 2016. Young People’s Participation in Peacebuilding: A Practice Note. Inter-Agency Network on Youth Development Working Group on Youth and Peacebuilding.Google Scholar
- Sierra Leone Telegraph. 2019. West Africa Gets a New Currency—It’s Called the ECO. Freetown, Sierra Leone. https://www.thesierraleonetelegraph.com/west-africa-gets-a-new-currency-its-called-the-eco/.
- United Nations Development Programme’s Regional Bureau for Africa. 2011. The Conflict in Cote d’Ivoire and Its Effects on West African Countries: A Perspective from the Ground. United Nations Development Programme, Nairobi, Kenya.Google Scholar