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Issues of Legitimacy: Legal and Political

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Part of the Crime Prevention and Security Management book series (CPSM)

Abstract

By harnessing immobilisation to risk control, the security sanction was able to provide a kind of protective cocoon around those aspects and areas of everyday life that have come to have a special value during the neo-liberal era of governance. Quality of life—such a signal of longing for a more settled and certain time—has become one of these areas. And similarly the human body—whether this relates to children because of their added value in a time of their own scarcity, and when other sources providing some sort of permanency seem to be dissolving; whether this relates to women, given the way in which the bodies of women in particular have become prized emblems for celebration and self-fulfilment; or whether this relates to random victims of terrorist attacks. Of course, criminal law can be used to prosecute and punish with vigour those who do make such attacks on such aspects and areas. But what is different about the security sanction is that it provides a form of defence against would-be attackers and destroyers. It has made possible the control of risks posed by any potential assailants; as well as providing the means to act against “warning signs” that indicate such crimes are on the way—signs such as low-level street disorder and other forms of anti-social behaviour; signs, in the case of potential Muslim terrorists flying in the US such as over-enthusiastic toilet flushing or undertaking mathematical equations, or even speaking Arabic; signs such as hanging around outside schools in the case of potential sex offenders. The risk-driven paradigm of criminal law and punishment has been able to variously provide these levels of protection, using retrospective legislation, shifting burdens of proof, changing rules of evidence, abandoning due process and so on to put these measures into law.

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  • DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-48872-7_7
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Notes

  1. 1.

    Kansas v. Hendricks, 521 U.S. 346 (1997).

  2. 2.

    Matter of Linehan, 557 N.W.2d 171 (Minn. 1996).

  3. 3.

    Kansas v. Hendricks, 521 U.S. 346 (1997), 346.

  4. 4.

    Kansas v. Hendricks, 521 U.S. 346 (1997), 347–348.

  5. 5.

    In re Detention of Anders, 304 Ill. App. 3d 117 (Ill. App. Ct. 1999), 122.

  6. 6.

    Fardon v. Attorney-General (QLD) [2004] HCA 46.

  7. 7.

    Fardon v. Attorney-General (QLD) [2004] HCA 46, 14.

  8. 8.

    Doe v. Poritz, 662 A.2d 367 (N.J. 1995).

  9. 9.

    Doe v. Poritz, 662 A.2d 367 (N.J. 1995), 372.

  10. 10.

    State v. Vogt, 685 S.E.2d 23 (N.C. Ct. App. 2009).

  11. 11.

    State v. Vogt, 364 N.C. 425, 700 S. E. 2d 224 (2010).

  12. 12.

    Vogt v. North Carolina, 364 N. C. 425, cert. denied, 564 US (US June 27, 2011) (No. 0-8800), 6.

  13. 13.

    Belleau v. Wall, 811 F. 3d 929 (7th Cir. 2016).

  14. 14.

    Belleau v. Wall, 811 F. 3d 929 (7th Cir. 2016), 934–936.

  15. 15.

    Clingham v. Kensington and Chelsea [2002] UKHL 39 (17 October 2002), para. 16.

  16. 16.

    Clingham v. Kensington and Chelsea [2002] UKHL 39 (17 October 2002), para. 113.

  17. 17.

    Director of Public Prosecutions v. Ferguson [2003] QSC 1.

  18. 18.

    Virginia v. Hicks, 539 U.S. 113 (2003), 119.

  19. 19.

    Clingham v. Kensington and Chelsea [2002] UKHL 39 (17 October 2002), para. 113.

  20. 20.

    R v. Curtis [2009] EWCA Crim 1125, para. 13.

  21. 21.

    R v. Hughes [2005] EWCA Crim 2537, para. 13.

  22. 22.

    Kansas v. Hendricks, 521 U.S. 346 (1997).

  23. 23.

    Brogan and Others v. UK, Apps Nos. 11209/84, 11234/84, 11266/84. 11386/85, ECtHR (29 November 1988).

  24. 24.

    A and Others v. Secretary of State for the Home Department [2004] UKHL 56 (16 December 2006).

  25. 25.

    A and Others v. Secretary of State for the Home Department [2004] UKHL 56 (16 December 2006), para. 97.

  26. 26.

    Secretary of State for the Home Department v. AF (No. 3) [2009] UKHL 28.

  27. 27.

    Secretary of State for the Home Department v. AP (No. 2) [2010] UKSC 24.

  28. 28.

    Attorney-General (QLD) v. Lawrence (2013) 306 ALR 281.

  29. 29.

    Wainohu v. New South Wales [2011] HCA 24.

  30. 30.

    In New Zealand, plans for child harm prevention orders (civil orders imposing behaviour conditions on those at “high risk” of abusing children, where “on the balance of probabilities” would have been the standard of proof, whether they had been convicted or not), were dropped in 2014. Here again, the intention to control risk had overbalanced the necessity for some show of procedural fairness.

  31. 31.

    M v. Germany, Judgment (Merits and Just Satisfaction), App No 19359/04 (ECHR 2009).

  32. 32.

    Chicago v. Youkhana, 660 N.E.2d. 34 (1995).

  33. 33.

    Chicago v. Morales, 527 U.S. 41 (1999).

  34. 34.

    Virginia v. Hicks, 539 U.S. 113 (2003), 116.

  35. 35.

    Virginia v. Hicks, 539 U.S. 113 (2003), 123.

  36. 36.

    Young v. New York City Transit Authority, 903 F.2d 146 (2d Cir. 1990).

  37. 37.

    Pottinger v. City of Miami, 810 F.Supp. 1551 (S.D. Fla. 1992).

  38. 38.

    Johnson v. City of Dallas, 860 F. Supp. 344 (N.D. Tex. 1994).

  39. 39.

    In re Eichorn, 69 Cal. App. 4th 382 (1998), 389.

  40. 40.

    Jones v. City of Los Angeles, 444 F.3d 1118 (9th Cir. 2006), 1121.

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Pratt, J. (2020). Issues of Legitimacy: Legal and Political. In: Law, Insecurity and Risk Control. Crime Prevention and Security Management. Palgrave Macmillan, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-48872-7_7

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-48872-7_7

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