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Mapping the Manifestations of Exclusion: Challenging the Incarceration of Queer People

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Part of the Palgrave Socio-Legal Studies book series (PSLS)

Abstract

Prisons are coercive spaces that strengthen and support the capitalist system. They are deeply gendered institutions that enforce a gender binary and perpetuate heteronormative gender performativity. These confinement spaces produce varieties of exclusion for queer people who challenge gender binaries. They are deemed both vulnerable and threatening. The purpose of this chapter is to explore how the law on prisoners’ rights reinforces gender-normative and heteronormative conceptions through the multiple manifestations of exclusion of queer prisoners: gender recognition: the systemic exclusions of transgender identities; isolation of visible and vulnerable queer prisoners; and heightened surveillance of long term relationships.

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Notes

  1. 1.

    Nils Christie, “Prisons in Society, or Society as Prison—A Conceptual Analysis,” in Prisons Past and Future, ed. J.C. Freeman (London: Heinemann, 1978) 179–188.

  2. 2.

    Jeffrey Reiman and Paul Leighton, The Rich Get Richer and the Poor Get Prison: A Reader (Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon, 2010).

  3. 3.

    Sarah Lamble, “Sexual Citizenship, Social Movements and the Expanding Carceral State,” in Queer Necropolitics, edited by Jin Haritaworn, Adin Kuntsman and Sylvia Posocco (Oxford: Routledge, 2014) 151–171, 152. Through their privatization, predominantly in the UK and US, prisons have also become key sites that drive neoliberal economies as part of the prison industrial complex. The development of the prison industrial complex is facilitated through the creation of labour, the function of which is driven by socio-economically disadvantaged groups; see e.g. Ruth Wilson Gilmore, Golden Gulag: Prisons, Surplus, Crisis and Opposition in Globalising California (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2007).

  4. 4.

    Eamonn Carrabine and Brian Longhurst, “Gender and Prison Organisation: Some Comments on Masculinities and Prison Management,” The Howard Journal 37, no. 2 (1998): 161–176; Judith Butler, Gender Trouble (New York and Abingdon: Routledge, [1990] 2007).

  5. 5.

    Bent Bars Project, “Prison Abolition Is a Queer Issue,” Bent Bars Project (2011) 1322.

  6. 6.

    See the case of Tara Hudson, who was incorrectly housed within a designated unit for individuals with significant mental health and physical needs in the men’s prison estate because of her gender identity. See Anon, “First UK Transgender Prison Unit to Open,” BBC News, March 3, 2019, accessed 20 March 2020, https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-47434730; Anon, “New Non-Binary Prison in Scotland?” Corporate Watch, Jan 17, 2018, accessed March 27, 2020, https://corporatewatch.org/new-non-binary-prison-in-scotland/.

  7. 7.

    “The Care and Management of Individuals Who Are Transgender,” HM Prisons and Probation Service, 31 October 2019.

  8. 8.

    Dean Spade, “The Only Way to End Racialized Gender Violence in Prisons Is to End Prisons: A Response to Russell Robinson’s ‘Masculinity as Prison’,” The Circuit, Paper 4, (2012), 184–195, 191.

  9. 9.

    Julia C. Oparah, “Feminism and the (Trans)gender Entrapment of Gender Nonconforming Prisoners,” UCLA Women’s L.J. 18 (2012): 239–271, 241.

  10. 10.

    Eric A. Stanley and Dean Spade, “Queer (In)Justice, ‘Queering Prison Abolition, Now?’” American Quarterly (2012): 115–127, 122.

  11. 11.

    Robyn Emerton, “Transgender Prisoners: Law, Prison Administration, and the Emerging Tension Between Human Rights and Risk” (PhD dissertation, Keele University, 2018).

  12. 12.

    Mary Corcoran, Out of Order: The Political Imprisonment of Women in Northern Ireland 19721998 (Cullompton: Willan Publishing, 2006).

  13. 13.

    Michel Foucault, Discipline and Punish (London: Penguin Books, [1977] 1991).

  14. 14.

    Foucault, Discipline and Punish.

  15. 15.

    Mitchell Dean, Governmentality: Power and Rule in Modern Society, 2nd edn. (Los Angeles: Sage, 2010), 18. See also Michel Foucault, The Birth of Biopolitics: Lectures at the Collège de France, 19781979 (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008).

  16. 16.

    Dean, Governmentality, 18; Rose and Miller cited in Eamonn Carrabine, Power, Discourse and Resistance: A Genealogy of the Strangeways Prison Riot (Dartmouth: Ashgate, 2004).

  17. 17.

    Dean, Governmentality, 30.

  18. 18.

    Michel Foucault, “Governmentality,” in The Foucault Effect: Studies in Governmentality: With Two Lectures by and an Interview with Michel Foucault, ed. Graham Burchell, Colin Gordon and Peter Miller (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1991) 87–104.

  19. 19.

    Dean, Governmentality, 122.

  20. 20.

    Michel Foucault, Society Must Be Defended (London: Penguin Books, 2004) 29.

  21. 21.

    Dean, Governmentality, 58.

  22. 22.

    Kelly Hannah-Moffat, Punishment in Disguise: Penal Governance and Federal Imprisonment of Women in Canada (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2001). Carrabine, Power, Discourse and Resistance.

  23. 23.

    Hannah-Moffat, Punishment in Disguise.

  24. 24.

    Thomas Ugelvik, Power and Resistance in Prison: Doing Time, Doing Freedom, Palgrave Studies in Prisons and Penology (Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan, 2014).

  25. 25.

    Carrabine and Longhurst, Gender and Prison Organisation.

  26. 26.

    Judith Butler, Gender Trouble.

  27. 27.

    Judith Butler, Gender Trouble.

  28. 28.

    Lori Girshick “Out of Compliance: Masculine-Identified People in Women’s Prisons,” in Captive Genders: Trans Embodiment and the Prison Industrial Complex, edited by Eric A. Stanley and Nat Smith (Edinburgh, UK and Oakland, CA: AK Press, 2011) 215–234, 217.

  29. 29.

    Joe Sim, “Tougher Than the Rest? Men in Prison,” in Just Boys Doing Business? Men, Masculinities and Crime, ed. Tim Newburn and Elizabeth A. Stanko (London: Routledge, 1994) 100–117.

  30. 30.

    Lori Girshick, “Out of Compliance,” 217.

  31. 31.

    P. Carlen, Sledgehammer: Women’s Imprisonment at the Millennium (London: Macmillan Press, 1998) 67–68.

  32. 32.

    Lori Girshick, “Out of Compliance,” 217.

  33. 33.

    Pat Carlen and Chris Tchaikovsky, “Women in Prison,” in Criminal Women: Autobiographical Accounts, edited by Pat Carlen, Jenny Hicks, Josie O’Dwyer, Diana Christina and Chris Tchaikovsky (Cambridge: Polity Press, 1985) 182.

  34. 34.

    This reflects the racialized dimension at the core of incarceration that has already been highlighted.

  35. 35.

    Corcoran, Out of Order.

  36. 36.

    This is evidenced in ways in which official statistics are collected, namely the percentage of LGB or other prisoners and the number of trans prisoners in a year. For 2017/18, 2.7% of prisoners who declared were LGB or other and 139 trans prisoners out of 83,263 incarcerated people. A breakdown to age, gender and ethnicity is only produced for trans prisoners, e.g. 9% BAME (27% BAME in overall prison population). Ministry of Justice, NOMS Annual Offender Equalities Report 2016/17, Ministry of Justice Statistics Bulletin, November 30, 2017, https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/760093/hmpps-offender-equalities-2017-18.pdf. NOMS only really started collecting some data on LGB and trans people in prison from 2015/2016 Offender Equalities Report. The first report was published in 2013.

  37. 37.

    Eric Stanley, “Introduction: Fugitive Flesh: Gender Self-Determination, Queer Abolition and Trans Resistance,” in Captive Genders: Trans Embodiment and the Prison Industrial Complex, edited by Eric Stanley and Nat Smith (Edinburgh, Oakland and Baltimore: AK Press, 2011) 7–20.

  38. 38.

    See subsection Gender Recognition.

  39. 39.

    See subsection Isolation.

  40. 40.

    Julia C. Oparah, “Feminism and the (Trans)gender Entrapment of Gender Nonconforming Prisoners,” UCLA Women’s L.J. 18 (2012): 239–271, 241.

  41. 41.

    Oparah, “(Trans)gender Entrapment,” 270.

  42. 42.

    Gail Mason, The Spectacle of Violence: Homophobia, Gender and Knowledge (London and New York: Routledge, 2002).

  43. 43.

    Mason, Spectacle of Violence, 3.

  44. 44.

    Mason, Spectacle of Violence, 135.

  45. 45.

    Mary Bosworth, Engendering Resistance: Agency, and Power in Women’s Prisons (Aldershot, UK: Dartmouth Publishing Company, 1999); Stanley, “Fugitive Flesh.”

  46. 46.

    Mary Bosworth and Eamonn Carrabine, “Reassessing Resistance: Race, Gender and Sexuality in Prison,” Punishment and Society 3, no. 4 (2001): 501–515.

  47. 47.

    Ugelvik, Doing Time.

  48. 48.

    Nicola Carr, S. Siobhán McAlister and Tanya Serisier, “Out on the Inside: The Rights, Needs, and Experiences of LGBT People in Prison,” Irish Penal Reform Trust, 2016; Mia Harris, “British Prisons Must Now Recognise Gender Fluid and Non-binary Inmates,” The Conversation, November 16, 2016, accessed March 27, 2020, https://theconversation.com/profiles/mia-harris-288195.

  49. 49.

    Peter Dunn, “Slipping Off the Equalities Agenda: Work with LGBT Prisoners,” Prison Service Journal 206 (2013): 3–10, 6.

  50. 50.

    McNally [2013] EWCA Crim 1051, J v B and The Children [2017] EWFC 4.

  51. 51.

    Corbett v Corbett [1970] 2 ALL ER 33, McNally [2013].

  52. 52.

    Stephen Whittle, Lewis Turner, and Maryam Al-Alami, Engendered Penalties: Transgender and Transsexual People’s Experiences of Inequality and Discrimination (London and Manchester: Press for Change and Manchester Metropolitan University, 2007) 21.

  53. 53.

    Valerie Jenness and Sarah Fernstermaker, “Agnes Goes to Prison: Gender Authenticity, Transgender Inmates in Prisons for Men, and Pursuit of ‘The Real Deal’,” Gender and Society (2013): 5–31, 12.

  54. 54.

    R (on the application of Green) v Secretary of State for Justice [2013] EWHC 3491 (Admin).

  55. 55.

    See Emerton, “Transgender Prisoners: Law, Prison Administration,” 269. See also the previous policy: PSI 17/2016, Transsexual Prisoners. [4.2].

  56. 56.

    Jenness and Fernstermaker, “Gender Authenticity,” 10.

  57. 57.

    The Human Rights Act 1998 came into force in 2000.

  58. 58.

    R v Frederick William Harris [2000] WL 1027092.

    The term ‘cisnormative’ describes the approach that “assum[es] people experience harmony between their gender identity and their anatomy, and privileges those who do”; Alex Sharpe, Sexual Intimacy and Gender Identity ‘Fraud’: Reframing the Legal and Ethical Debate (Abingdon: Routledge, 2018).

  59. 59.

    Harris [2000], [2].

  60. 60.

    Harris [2000] [9]–[10].

  61. 61.

    Harris [2000] [11].

  62. 62.

    Stanley and Smith, Captive Genders, 217.

  63. 63.

    Roscoe Pound, “Mechanical Jurisprudence,” Columbia Law Review (1908).

  64. 64.

    Stanley and Spade, “Queering Prison Abolition,” 120.

  65. 65.

    Harris [2000] [9].

  66. 66.

    Rebecca Mann, “The Treatment of Transgender Prisoners, Not Just an American Problem—A Comparative Analysis of American, Australian, and Canadian Prison Policies Concerning the Treatment of Transgender Prisoners and a ‘Universal’Recommendation to Improve Treatment,” Law and Sexuality Review, Lesbian Gay Bisexual and Legal Issues 15 (2006): 91–134, 6.

    Harris [2000] [9].

  67. 67.

    Harris [2000] [11].

  68. 68.

    Alex Sharpe, “Queering Judgment: The Case of Gender Identity Fraud,” Journal of Criminal Law (2017): 417–435.

  69. 69.

    Sharpe, “Queering Judgment,” 6. Sharpe highlights that in accessing judicial notice the information highlighted must be “so notorious, or clearly established, or susceptible to demonstration by reference to a readily obtainable and authoritative source, that evidence of their existence is unnecessary.”

  70. 70.

    Hanoch Dagan, “The Realist Conception of Law,” The University of Toronto Law Journal (2007): 607–660, 618.

  71. 71.

    See Sharpe, “Queering Judgment” for an alternative approach to judgment writing as a means of reconfiguring historic juristic constructions of gender; while also remaining faithful to the constraints and conventions imposed by traditional judicial method. Exploring the potential of establishing gender-fluid approaches to judicial decision-making within a criminal law context would be a valuable avenue of further research.

  72. 72.

    R (on the application of B) v Secretary of State for Justice [2009] EWHC 2220.

  73. 73.

    AB [2009]. Under Section 9(1) of the GRA 2004, the individual in receipt of the certificate must be recognised within their acquired gender and sex upon its issue.

  74. 74.

    AB [2009] [7].

  75. 75.

    AB [2009] [4].

  76. 76.

    AB [2009] [7] and [49].

  77. 77.

    AB [2009] [49].

  78. 78.

    AB [2009] [49].

  79. 79.

    AB [2009] [77].

  80. 80.

    Green [2013].

  81. 81.

    AB [2009] [18].

  82. 82.

    PSI 07/2011, Transsexual Prisoners. 1.5, 2.2, 3.3.

  83. 83.

    PSI 07/2011, Transsexual Prisoners. 1.1, 3.2.

  84. 84.

    Sarah Lamble, “Rethinking Gendered Prison Policies: Impacts on Transgender Prisoners,” ECAN Bulletin 10 (2012).

  85. 85.

    Lamble, Gendered prison policies.

  86. 86.

    Lamble, Gendered prison policies.

  87. 87.

    Green [2013].

  88. 88.

    A detailed list of the items requested can be found at paragraph 35 of the judgment.

  89. 89.

    Section 13 (1) Equality Act 2010; Green [2013] [31]–[32], [34], and [65].

  90. 90.

    Green [2013] [2], [28], and [46].

  91. 91.

    Green [2013] [2], [28], and [46].

  92. 92.

    Green [2013] [2].

  93. 93.

    Green [2013] [37] and [71].

  94. 94.

    Green [2013] [46].

  95. 95.

    Dunn, “Slipping Off,” 14.

  96. 96.

    Green [2013] [10]–[11].

  97. 97.

    Green [2013] [68].

  98. 98.

    Corbett [1970] represented the authority on determining sex and gender until the enactment of the Gender Recognition Act 2004. The case concerned the applicant, Arthur Corbett, who issued legal proceedings to annul the marriage with his spouse, April Ashley, on the grounds that she was male. Upon the construction of invasive and chromosomal, gonadal and genital tests to determine the sex of April Ashley, Lord Justice Ormerod ruled that sex was fixed at birth and unalterable, meaning that Ashley would only be recognised as male for the purposes of marriage law in England and Wales. In permitting the annulment of the marriage between the couple on the basis of rigid and biological conceptions of sex, Omerod J refused to recognise Ashley’s gender identity as a woman.

  99. 99.

    Section 7 (1) Equality Act 2010.

  100. 100.

    Bob Hepple, “The New Single Equality Act in Britain,” The Equality Rights Review (2010): 11–24, 22.

  101. 101.

    Anon, “Transgender Prison Deaths: Watchdog Calls for Action,” BBC News, January 10, 2017, accessed March 27, 2020, https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-38562714.

  102. 102.

    PSI 07/2016, Transgender Prisoners 1.3, 2.3, 2.4, 2.5.

  103. 103.

    Mia Harris and Robyn Emerton, “New Policy on Transgender Prisoners: Progressive But Can Prisons Keep Pace?” Inherently Human, November 21, 2016. Accessed November, 17 2020, https://inherentlyhuman.wordpress.com/2016/11/21/new-policy-on-transgender-prisoners-progressive-but-can-prisons-keep-pace/.

  104. 104.

    Robyn Emerton, “Transgender Prisoners,” 4

  105. 105.

    For a nuanced analysis of the Karen White case see Alex Sharpe, “Foxes in the Henhouse: Putting the Trans Women Prison Debate in Perspective,” Inherently Human, September 11, 2018, accessed March 27, 2020, https://inherentlyhuman.wordpress.com/2018/09/11/foxes-in-the-henhouse-putting-the-trans-women-prison-debate-in-perspective/.

  106. 106.

    PSI 17/2016, Transgender Prisoners. 2.4.

  107. 107.

    Harris and Emerton, “New Policy.”

  108. 108.

    “The Care and Management of Individuals Who Are Transgender,” HM Prisons and Probation Service, 31 October 2019.

  109. 109.

    The Care and Management of Individuals who are Transgender, 2019.

  110. 110.

    The Care and Management of Individuals who are Transgender, 2019, 1.6.

  111. 111.

    Interim report of the Special Rapporteur on Torture to the UN General Assembly, 5 August 2011, A/66/268, p. 19 cit. in Penal Reform International and APT, LGBTI persons deprived of their liberty: framework for preventive monitoring, 2nd ed. 2015, https://cdn.penalreform.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/01/lgbti-framework-2nd-ed-v7-web.pdf, p. 11.

  112. 112.

    X v Turkey, App. No. 24626/09 (ECtHR, 27 May 2013).

  113. 113.

    Connolly v Governor of Wheatfield Prison [2013] IEHC 334.

  114. 114.

    Kröcher and Möller v Switzerland, App. No. 8463/78 (ECmHR, 1978).

  115. 115.

    X v Turkey [2003] [40].

  116. 116.

    To put it in context, European human rights precedents that set out the test for the use of solitary confinement were cases in which prisoners were either in pre-trial detention for or convicted of very serious offences, such as drug trafficking/organized crime (Rohde v Denmark [69332/01] July 21, 2005), and terrorism (Ramirez Sanchez [59450/00] July 7, 2006).

  117. 117.

    X v Turkey [2003] [45].

  118. 118.

    Connolly [2013].

  119. 119.

    Mainstream regime refers to prison wings that are not segregated spaces either for protection, punishment or containment.

  120. 120.

    Connolly [2013] [27].

  121. 121.

    See Kinsella [2012] 1 I.R. 467. This mirrors the threshold set by the European Court of Human Rights mentioned above.

  122. 122.

    This seems to be a broader problem in administrative rulings on prison standards, also in England and Wales. This is particularly the case relating to issues of security and order.

  123. 123.

    See Kröcher and Möller (1978).

  124. 124.

    R (on the application of Bourgass and another) SC [2015] UKSC 54.

  125. 125.

    R v Deputy Governor of Parkhurst Prison, Ex p Hague [1992] 1 AC 58 cit. in Bourgass [2015] [122].

  126. 126.

    Ex p Hague [1992] cited in Bourgass [2015], [122].

  127. 127.

    Segregation of such prisoners is governed by Rule 45(1) of the Prison Rules 1999. Prisoners can be removed for the preservation of “good order or discipline” as well as “in his own interests”.

  128. 128.

    Sharon Shalev and Edgar Kimmet, Deep Custody: Segregation Units and Close Supervision Centres in England and Wales, Prison Reform Trust, 2015.

  129. 129.

    Shalev and Kimmet, Deep Custody, 5.

  130. 130.

    Prisons and Probation Ombudsman for England and Wales, Learning Lessons Bulletin: Fatal Incident Investigations: Segregation (June 2015), http://www.ppo.gov.uk/app/uploads/2015/06/Learning-Lessons-Bulletin-Segregation-final.pdf.

  131. 131.

    Shalev and Kimmet, Deep Custody, 132.

  132. 132.

    For a comprehensive review, see Peter Scharff Smith, “The Effects of Solitary Confinement on Prison Inmates: A Brief History and Review of the Literature,” Crime and Justice 34, no. 1 (2006): 441–528.

  133. 133.

    See the UN Special Rapporteur of the Human Rights Council on Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman and Degrading Treatment or Punishment 2008 Istanbul Statement on the Use and Effects of Solitary Confinement cited Bourgass [2015] [38].

  134. 134.

    Bourgass [2015] [40].

  135. 135.

    Ariana Silvestri, “Prison Conditions in the United Kingdom,” European Prison Observatory, 2013, https://www.crimeandjustice.org.uk/sites/crimeandjustice.org.uk/files/Prison%20conditions%20in%20the%20UK.pdf, p. 22. It is difficult to identify how this disproportionately affects LGBTIQ+ people as NOMS data on segregation does not include sexual orientation and gender identity. The most recent demographic data of numbers of prisoners segregated is listed in “Deep Custody,” 148–149. They are split by ethnicity, age and gender. In the 2017/2018 Offender Equalities Annual Report, it is stated that number of segregation days among other data have been excluded due to poor quality of the data (see Ministry of Justice 2017/2018 Offender Equalities, 3).

  136. 136.

    Erwin James, “Homophobia Is Still Rife in UK Prisons,” The Guardian, September 25, 2012, accessed March 27, 2020, https://www.theguardian.com/society/2012/sep/25/homophobia-rife-uk-prisons.

  137. 137.

    For a comprehensive overview of prisoners’ rights under art. 8 ECHR, see Dirk Van Zyl Smit and Sonja Snacken, Principles of European Prison Law and Policy: Penology and Human Rights (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009).

  138. 138.

    Charles O’Neill and William Lauchlan, [2015] CSOH 93; [2015] CSOH 144 (O’Neill and Lauchlan [2015a] [2015b]). The Scottish Prison Service as well as its legal system are independent.

  139. 139.

    The factual context of the decision is a bit strange in the sense that it changed in between the dates for the first (20–21 November 2014) and second hearing (12 May 2015). Following the first hearing, the Scottish Prison Service (SPS) changed its assessment of O’Neill and Lauchlan’s relationship; it acknowledged that they had been in a same-sex relationship since before their detention in 2008. Furthermore, the SPS approved one inter-prison visit in that same period.

  140. 140.

    O’Neill and Lauchlan (2015a) [10]. This is also the case in England and Wales, where inter-prison visits are governed by PSI 16/2011, Providing Visits and Services to Visitors [5.15]. See also R (on the application of Bright) v Secretary of State for Justice, Bright v Governor of Whitemoor Prison CA (Civil Division) [2014] EWCA Civ 1628; [2015] 1 W.L.R. 723; [2014] 12 WLUK 564 [14].

  141. 141.

    O’Neill and Lauchlan (2015a) [15].

  142. 142.

    This raises the question whether this family life test is equally applied to heterosexual couples in prison.

  143. 143.

    Lynch cit. in Sue Westwood, “‘My Friends Are My Family’: An Argument About the Limitations of Contemporary Law’s Recognition of Relationships in Later Life,” Journal of Social Welfare and Family Law 35, no. 3 (2013): 347–363, 349.

  144. 144.

    O’Neill and Lauchlan (2015a) [15].

  145. 145.

    Westwood, “My Friends,” 349.

  146. 146.

    Fineman cited in Westwood, “My Friends,” 349.

  147. 147.

    Polikoff cited in Westwood, “My Friends,” 349.

  148. 148.

    Roseneil cited in Westwood, “My Friends,” 349.

  149. 149.

    Stychin cited in Westwood, “My Friends,” 349.

  150. 150.

    Barker cited in Westwood, “My Friends,” 349.

  151. 151.

    R (on the application of Bright) v Secretary of State for Justice, Bright v Governor of Whitemoor Prison CA (Civil Division) [2014] EWCA Civ 1628; [2015] 1 W.L.R. 723; [2014] 12 WLUK 564. R (on the application of Hopkins) v Sodexo/HMP Bronzefield QB (Administrative Court) [2016] EWHC 606 (Admin), 2016 A.C.D. 61.

  152. 152.

    The applicants had been refused permission to apply for judicial review in the Administrative Court. On appeal, they received permission and the proceedings were retained in the Court of Appeal.

  153. 153.

    Bright and Keeley [2014] para 33. Lord Dyson is referring to Wednesbury reasonableness: Associated Provincial Picture Houses Ltd v Wednesbury Corporation [1948] 1 KB 223.

  154. 154.

    Bright and Keeley [2014] [35].

  155. 155.

    Bright and Keeley [2014] [23].

  156. 156.

    The IEP is a mechanism to promote compliance in prisoners through incentives and to punish prisoners with loss of “privileges” if they do not comply. For more information, see House of Commons Library, Research Briefings July 31, 2014, accessed May 20, 2019, https://researchbriefings.parliament.uk/ResearchBriefing/Summary/SN06942.

  157. 157.

    Alisa Stevens, Sex in Prison: Experiences of Former Prisoners. A Report for the Howard League’s Commission on Sex in Prison, The Howard League for Penal Reform, 2015, accessed May 25, 2019, https://howardleague.org/publications/sex-in-prison-experiences-of-former-prisoners/.

  158. 158.

    Stevens, Sex in prison.

  159. 159.

    Bright and Keeley [2014] [27].

  160. 160.

    See Leslie J. Moran, The Homosexual(ity) of Law (London and New York: Routledge, 1996).

  161. 161.

    Hopkins [2016].

  162. 162.

    Hopkins [2016] [59]–[60].

  163. 163.

    Hopkins [2016] [70].

  164. 164.

    Hopkins [2016] [77].

  165. 165.

    X v United Kingdom (EComHR, 8 October 1982); Messina v Italy (no 2), App. No. 25498/94 (ECtHR, 28 September 2000) [61]; McCotter v UK, App. No. 20479/92 (EComHR, 1992). And, correspondingly, family members of prisoners have a right to maintain relationships with their close relations in prison. For a comprehensive study: see Helen Codd, In the Shadow of Prison: Families, Imprisonment and Criminal Justice (Abingdon: Routledge, 2008).

  166. 166.

    Inter-prison visits are governed by PSI 16/2011, Providing Visits and Services to Visitors, HM Prison and Probation Service, https://www.justice.gov.uk/offenders/psis/prison-service-instructions-2011 [5.15].

  167. 167.

    Hopkins [2016] para 46.

  168. 168.

    Lord Dyson in Bright and Keeley [27]. For the UK has a blanket ban on conjugal visits which has been upheld by the European Commission under the ECHR’s margin of appreciation, see ELH and PBH v UK [1998] EHLR 231. Moreover, in an earlier judgment, the European Commission upheld a blanket ban on sex between married couples in prison, see X and Y v Switzerland (1978) 13 DR 241. In contrast, in 2011, the Supreme Court of Costa Rica ruled that conjugal visits needed to be extended to prisoners in same-sex relationships; see Acción de inconstitucionalidad contra el artículo 66 del Reglamento Técnico Penitenciario, Decreto Ejecutivo Número 33876-J, Exp: 08-002849- 0007-CO, Res. No. 2011013800. cited in IPR and APR 2015.

  169. 169.

    Thank you to Peter Dunne and Sen Raj for pointing this out.

  170. 170.

    André Gorz, “Strategy for Labour,” in Theories of Labour Movement, ed. Jon Dunlop (Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1987), 100–117; Girshick, “Out of Compliance,” 191.

  171. 171.

    See Diane Taylor, “Officials Altered Records in Bisexual Prison Officer Case, Judge Says,” The Guardian, May 28, 2019, accessed January 20, 2020, https://www.theguardian.com/world/2019/may/28/officials-altered-records-in-bisexual-prison-officer-case-judge-says.

  172. 172.

    This is in no way intended to negate or to detract from the positive efforts many people make within the prison system and from the outside to challenge systemic harm and violence that differentiates on grounds of race, gender, sexuality and sexual identity.

  173. 173.

    Spade, “Racialized Gender Violence,” 195.

  174. 174.

    Stanley, Spade, and Queer (In) Justice, “Queering Prison Abolition,” 122.

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Acknowledgments

We would like to thank Stella Coyle for research assistance and our friends and colleagues at Keele who provide such a collegiate research environment. We would also like to thank Peter Dunne and Sen Raj for their supportive and constructive comments. Felicity is grateful to Keele University School of Law for her doctoral scholarship. All errors remain our own.

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Adams, F., Emmerich, F. (2021). Mapping the Manifestations of Exclusion: Challenging the Incarceration of Queer People. In: Raj, S., Dunne, P. (eds) The Queer Outside in Law. Palgrave Socio-Legal Studies. Palgrave Macmillan, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-48830-7_5

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