Skip to main content

Situation and Conservation of Tarantulas in the Americas

  • Chapter
  • First Online:
New World Tarantulas

Part of the book series: Zoological Monographs ((ZM,volume 6))

Abstract

Tarantulas are the world’s largest spiders and they are more abundant in the Americas than in any other place. They are primarily found in tropical, semi-tropical, and arid regions over the continent; some of them even have adapted to anthropogenic habitats. As other spiders, tarantulas play many important roles in ecosystems as predators and sources of food for other creatures. Although tarantulas are an integral part of biodiversity whose conservation is justified, they are not usually included in conservation strategies. It is evident that regardless the scientific and technical arguments for their protection, the cultural weight awash with prejudice and undervaluation can ruin the best reasons. Because of this, the sustainable use and management of tarantulas native to the Americas depend on the knowledge of its main threats, its relevance to the environment, and creation of public policies that involve society for management, protection, and conservation actions.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this chapter

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or eBook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Chapter
USD 29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
eBook
USD 129.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as EPUB and PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
Softcover Book
USD 169.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Compact, lightweight edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info
Hardcover Book
USD 199.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Durable hardcover edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info

Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout

Purchases are for personal use only

Institutional subscriptions

Similar content being viewed by others

References

  • Aguilar-López JL, Pineda E, Luría-Manzano R (2014) Depredación de tres especies de herpetozoos por arañas en la región tropical de Veracruz, México. Rev Mex Biodiv 85:965–968

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Amat-García G, Andrade MG, Amat-García E (2007) Libro Rojo de los Invertebrados terrestres de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales- Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Conservación Internacional Colombia Instituto Alexander von Humboldt, Ministerio de Ambiente, Vivienda y Crédito Territorial, Bogotá 204 pp

    Google Scholar 

  • Azevedo CS, Smith M (2004) Araneofauna na região do Seringalzinho. In: Janelas para diversidade no Parque Nacional do Jaú. Uma estratégia para o estudo da biodiversidade na Amazônia, pp 135–142

    Google Scholar 

  • Baerg WJ (1958) The Tarantula. University of Kansas Press, Lawrence, 85 pp

    Google Scholar 

  • Barrientos JA (2004) Conservar y proteger a los arácnidos ¿cuales, cómo y por qué? Munibe 21:138–153

    Google Scholar 

  • Benjamin SP, Nanayakkara RP, Dayananda SK (2012) The taxonomy and conservation status of the spiders (Arachnida: Araneae) in Sri Lanka. In: Weerakoon DK, Wijesundara S (eds) The National Red List 2012 of Sri Lanka; conservation status of the fauna and flora. Ministry of Environment, Colombo, pp 42–45

    Google Scholar 

  • Bertani R (2012) Revision, cladistic analysis and biogeography of Typhochlaena C. L. Koch, 1850, Pachistopelma Pocock, 1901 and Iridopelma Pocock, 1901 (Araneae, Theraphosidae, Aviculariinae). ZooKeys 230:1–94

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bond JE, Stockman AK (2008) An integrative method for delimiting cohesion species: finding the population-species interface in a group of Californian trapdoor spiders with extreme genetic divergence and geographic structuring. Syst Biol 57:628–646

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Bond JE, Hedin MC, Ramirez MG, Opell BD (2001) Deep molecular divergence in the absence of morphological and ecological change in the Californian coastal dune endemic trapdoor spider Aptostichus simus. Mol Ecol 10:899–910

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Bond JE, Beamer DA, Lamb T, Hedin M (2006) Combining genetic and geospatial analyses to infer population extinction in mygalomorph spiders endemic to the Los Angeles region. Anim Conserv 9:145–157

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Borges LM, Da Rosa CM, Franzoi Dri G, Bertani R (2016) Predation of the snake Erythrolamprus almadensis (Wagler,1824) by the tarantula Grammostola quirogai Montes De Oca, D’Elía and Pérez-Miles, 2016. Herpetol Notes 9:321–322

    Google Scholar 

  • Breene RG (1998) The ATS arthropod medical manual: diagnoses and treatment. American Tarantula Society, Carlsbad, NM, 32 pp

    Google Scholar 

  • Breet C (1993) Documentary: giant spiders of the lost world, Survival Anglia, Summit Television

    Google Scholar 

  • Bristowe WS (1932) Insects and other invertebrates for human consumption in Siam. Trans R Entomol Soc Lond 80:387–404

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Burgman MA (2005) Risks and decisions for conservation and environmental management. Cambridge University Press, New York, 488 pp

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • Byrne R (2009) Cambodian spiders under threat. Khmer Media. http://mediakh.net/business-and-eco/cambodian-spiders-under-threat. Accessed 8 Aug 2018

  • Campos JV, Almeida F (2016) A small homage to Maria Sibylla Merian, and new records of spiders (Araneae: Theraphosidae) preying on birds. Rev Bras Ornitol 24:30–33

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Cardoso P, Erwin TL, Borges PAV, New TR (2011) The seven impediments in invertebrate conservation and how to overcome them. Biol Conserv 144:2647–2655

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Carranza D (2018) Incautan en Colombia 23 tarántulas que iban al comercio ilegal en Seúl. Anandolu Agency. Retrieved from https://www.aa.com.tr/es/

  • CEC (2017) Sustainable trade in Tarantulas: action plan for North America. Commission for Environmental Cooperation, Montreal, 52 pp

    Google Scholar 

  • CITES (1985) Amendments to appendices I and II of the convention. Cites Secretariat, Geneva

    Google Scholar 

  • CITES (1994) Other proposals: to include all species (and subspecies) of the genus Brachypelma (also known as Euathus) in Appendix II. Cites Secretariat, Geneva

    Google Scholar 

  • Cléton F, Sigwalt Y, Verdez JM (2015) Tarantulas, breeding experience & wildlife. Frankfurt am Main, Edition Chimaira, 231 pp

    Google Scholar 

  • Cloyed CS, Eason PK (2017) Niche partitioning and the role of intraspecific niche variation in structuring a guild of generalist anurans. R Soc Open Sci 4:170060

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Cocroft RB, Hambler K (1989) Observations of a commensal relationship of the microhylid frog Chiasmocleis ventrimaculata and the burrowing theraphosid spider Xenesthis immanis in southeastern Peru. Biotropica 21:2–8

    Google Scholar 

  • Cooper R (2011) Smuggler caught at airport with 261 Mexican tarantulas shoved into his luggage. Daily Mail. Retrieved from https://www.dailymail.co.uk

  • Cooper EWT, West R, Mendoza J (2019) Identificación de tarantulas Listadas en la CITES: especies de Aphonopelma, Brachypelma y Sericopelma. Comisión para la Cooperación Ambiental, Montreal, 80 pp

    Google Scholar 

  • Copperi S, Ferretti N, González A, Pérez-Miles F, Pompozzi G (2011) Arañas migalomorfas: ¿simpáticas mascotas o aterradores peligros? Ciencia Hoy 21:36–43

    Google Scholar 

  • Corzo G, Diego-García E, Clement H, Peigneur S, Odell G, Tytgat J, Possani LD, Alagón A (2008) An insecticidal peptide from the theraposid Brachypelma smithi spider venom reveals common molecular features among spider species from different genera. Peptides 29:1901–1908

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Costa FG, Pérez-Miles F (2002) Reproductive biology of uruguayan theraphosids (Araneae, Mygalomorphae). J Arachnol 30:571–588

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Costa Neto EM, Resende JJ (2004) A percepção de animais como “insetos” e sua utilização como recursos medicinais na cidade de Feira de Santana, estado da Bahia, Brasil. Acta Sci 26:143–149

    Google Scholar 

  • Costa-Neto EM (2006) Bird-spiders (Arachnida, Mygalomorphae) as perceived by the inhabitants of the village of Pedra Branca, Bahia State, Brazil. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed 2:50

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Costello MJ, May RM, Stork NE (2013) Can we name Earth’s species before they go extinct? Science 339:413–416

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Coyle FA (1985) Ballooning behavior of Ummidia spiderlings (Araneae, Ctenizidae). J Arachnol 13:137–138

    Google Scholar 

  • Coyle FA (1995) A revision of the funnelweb Mygalomorph spider subfamily Ischnothelinae (Araneae, Dipluridae). Bull Am Mus Nat Hist 226:1–133

    Google Scholar 

  • Coyle FA, Icenogle WR (1994) Natural history of the Californian trapdoor spider genus Aliatypus (Araneae, Antrodiaetidae). J Arachnol 22:225–255

    Google Scholar 

  • Csakany J (2002) Study on the chemical communication between the Microhylid frog, Chiasmocleis ventrimaculatata, and a Theraphosid Spider involved in a commensal relationship. Masters dissertation report submitted to State University of New York, 13 pp

    Google Scholar 

  • Das KSA, Sreekala LK, Abdurahima O (2012) Predation on the Kelaart’s Pipistrelle Bat, Pipistrellus ceylonicus Kelaart (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae), by the Reddish Parachute Tarantula, Poecilotheria rufilata Pocock (Araneae: Theraphosidae), in Chinnar Wildlife Sanctuary, Kerala, India. Trop Nat Hist 12:257–260

    Google Scholar 

  • Desales-Lara MA, Francke OF, Sánchez-Nava P (2013) Diversidad de arañas (Arachnida: Araneae) en hábitats antropogénicos. Rev Mex Biodiv 84:291–305

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • DeWet JI (1991) A revision of the genus Ceratogyrus Pocock (Araneae: Theraphosidae). MSc thesis, Rand Afrikaans University, Johannesburg

    Google Scholar 

  • Dias C, Brescovit A (2003) Notes on the behavior of Pachistopelma rufonigrum Pocock (Araneae, Theraphosidae, Aviculariinae). Rev Bras Zool 20:13–17

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Dippenaar-Schoeman AS (2002) Baboon and trapdoor spiders of Southern Africa: an identification manual. Plant protection research institute handbook no. 13. Agricultural Research Council, Pretoria, p 129

    Google Scholar 

  • DOF (Diario Oficial de la Federación) (2000) Ley general de vida silvestre. Diario Oficial de la Federación 3 July 2000. http://www.diputados.gob.mx/LeyesBiblio/ref/lgvs/LGVS_orig_03jul00.pdf

  • Dor A, Hénaut Y (2011) Are cannibalism and tarantula predation, factors of the spatial distribution of the wolf spider Lycosa subfusca (Araneae Lycosidae)? Ethol Ecol Evol 23:375–387

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Dor A, Calmé S, Hénaut Y (2011) Predatory interactions between Centruroides scorpions and the tarantula Brachypelma vagans. J Arachnol 39:201–204

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • DuFord D (2009) How to eat fried tarantula in Cambodia. http://www.worldhum.com/features/how-to-eat-fried-tarantulas-in-cambodia-20091201. Accessed 28 June 2018

  • Enríquez P, Mariaca R, Retana ÓG, Naranjo EJ (2006) Uso medicinal de la fauna silvestre en los altos de Chiapas, México. Interciencia 31:491–499

    Google Scholar 

  • Escoubas P, Rash L (2004) Tarantulas: eight-legged pharmacists and combinatorial chemists. Toxicon 43:555–574

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Escoubas P, Célérier ML, Nakajima T (1997) High-performance liquid chromatography matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry peptide fingerprinting of tarantula venoms in the genus Brachypelma: chemotaxonomic and biochemical applications. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 11:1891–1899

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Ferretti N, Gonzalez A, Pérez-Miles F (2014) Identification of priority areas for conservation in Argentina: quantitative biogeography insights from mygalomorph spider (Araneae: Mygalomorphae). J Insect Conserv 18:1087–1096

    Google Scholar 

  • Ferretti NE, Pompozzi G (2012) Grammostola vachoni. The IUCN red list of threatened species 2012: e.T18217620A18217711. Accessed 18 Aug 2018

    Google Scholar 

  • Ferretti N, Pompozzi G, Copperi S, Pérez-Miles F, González A (2012) Mygalomorph spider community of a natural reserve in a hilly system in central Argentina. J Insect Sci 12:1–16

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Foelix RF (1996) Biology of spiders, 2nd edn. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 330 pp

    Google Scholar 

  • Fukushima C, Mendoza J, West R, Longhorn S, Rivera-Téllez E, Henáut Y, Henriques S, Cardoso P (2018) Brachypelma. The IUCN red list of threatened species 2018: e.T8152A21416539. Accessed 28 Nov 2018

    Google Scholar 

  • Garton JD, Mushinsky HR (1979) Integumetary toxicity as an antipredator mechanism in the narrow mouthed frog, Gastrophryne carolinensis. Can J Zool 57:1965–1973

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ghione S, Coelho L, Costa FG, García LF, González M, Jorge C, Laborda A, Montes de Oca L, Pérez-Miles F, Postiglioni R, Simó M, Toscano-Gadea C, Viera C, Aisenberg A (2017) Arácnidos prioritarios para la conservación en Uruguay. Bol Soc Zoológica Urug 26:1–8

    Google Scholar 

  • Hamilton CA, Hendrixson BE, Bond JE (2016) Taxonomic revision of the tarantula genus Aphonopelma Pocock, 1901 (Araneae, Mygalomorphae, Theraphosidae) within the United States. ZooKeys 560:1–340

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hardy MC, Daly NL, Mobli M, Morales RAV, King GF (2013) Isolation of an orally active insecticidal toxin from the venom of an Australian tarantula. PLoS One 8:e73136

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Hedin M, Starrett J, Hayashi C (2013) Crossing the uncrossable: novel trans-valley biogeographic patterns revealed in the genetic history of low-dispersal mygalomorph spiders (Antrodiaetidae, Antrodiaetus) from California. Mol Ecol 22:508–526

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Hendrixson BE, Guice AV, Bond JE (2014) Integrative species delimitation and conservation of tarantulas (Araneae, Mygalomorphae, Theraphosidae) from a North American biodiversity hotspot. Insect Conserv Div 8:120–131

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hirsch BT (2009) Seasonal variation in the diet of ring-tailed coatis (Nasua nasua) in Iguazu, Argentina. J Mammal 90:136–143

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Horstkottet J, Riesch R, Plath M, Jager P (2010) Predation by three species of spiders on a cave fish in a Mexican sulphur cave. Bull Br Arachnol Soc 15:55–58

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hsiung BK, Deheyn DD, Shawkey MD, Blackledge TA (2015) Blue reflectance in tarantulas is evolutionarily conserved despite nanostructural diversity. Sci Adv 1:e1500709

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Hsiung BK, Siddique RH, Jiang L, Liu Y, Lu Y, Shawkey MD, Blackledge TA (2017) Tarantula-Inspired Noniridescent Photonics with Long-Range Order. Adv Opt Mater 5:1600599

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Hunn ES (1977) Tzeltal folk zoology: The classification of discontinuities in nature. Academic Press, New York

    Google Scholar 

  • Hunt RH (1980) Frog sanctuary in a tarantula burrow. J Nat Hist 89:48–53

    Google Scholar 

  • INECC (2012) Tráfico ilegal de especies silvestres y sus impactos. Available at http://www.inecc.gob.mx/descargas/dgioece/2012_sem_trafico_pon01_alow.pdf. Accessed 9 Sept 2018

  • Isbister GK, Seymourb JE, Grayc MR, Raven RJ (2003) Bites by spiders of the family Theraphosidae in humans and canines. Toxicon 41:519–524

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • IUCN (2018) The IUCN red list of threatened species, Version 2018.2. Available online at http://www.iucnredlist.org. Accessed 29 Oct 2018

  • Kaiser II, Griffin PR, Aird SD, Hudiburg S, Shabanowitz J, Francis B, John TR, Hunt DF, Odell GV (1994) Primary structures of two proteins from the venom of the Mexican red knee tarantula (Brachypelma smithi). Toxicon 32:1083–1093

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Klaas P (2007) Vogelspinnen völlig neu bearbeitete Auflage. Datz Terrarienbücher, Ulmer, Stuttgart, 142pp

    Google Scholar 

  • Kingsley KJ (2016) Common, conspicuous, and curious arthropods of Zion National Park. Self-published as a pdf file. Available online at https://www.entsoc.org/sites/default/files/Arthropods%20of%20Zion%20National%20Park.pdf

  • Landgraf M (2016) Dressing up like a Peacock: bright colors by nanotechnology. Sci Daily 144:1–3

    Google Scholar 

  • Landis DA, Wratten SD, Gurr GM (2000) Habitat management to conserve natural enemies of arthropod pests in agriculture. Annu Rev Entomol 45:175–201

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Laurance WF (2010) Habitat destruction: death by a thousand cuts. In: Sodhi NS, Ehrlich PR (eds) Conservation biology for all. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 73–87

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  • Locht A (2008) Estudio sobre la sistemática y distribución de la familia Theraphosidae (Arachnida, Araneae) en México. Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico City

    Google Scholar 

  • Locht A, Yáñez M, Vázquez I (1999) Distribution and natural history of Mexican species of Brachypelma and Brachypelmides (Theraphosidae, Theraphosinae) with morphological evidence for their synonymy. J Arachnol 27:196–200

    Google Scholar 

  • Longhorn SJ (2014) On type localities of Mexican tarantulas, either missing for Bonnetina or misleading for Brachypelma, with appeal for accurate biogeographic data. J Brit Tarant Soc 29:16–28

    Google Scholar 

  • Longhorn SJ, Nicholas M, Chuter J, Vogler AP (2007) The utility of molecular markers from non-lethal DNA samples of the CITES II protected “tarantula” Brachypelma vagans (Araneae, Theraphosidae). J Arachnol 35:278–292

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lowe EC, Wilder SM, Hochuli DF (2017) Life history of an urban-tolerant spider shows resilience to anthropogenic habitat disturbance. J Urban Ecol 3:jux004

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Machkour-M’Rabet S, Hénaut Y, Winterton P, Rojo R (2011) A case of zootherapy with the tarantula Brachypelma vagans Ausserer, 1875 in traditional medicine of the Chol Mayan ethnic group in Mexico. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed 7:1–7

    Google Scholar 

  • Machkour-M’Rabet S, Hénaut Y, Calmé S, Legal L (2012) When landscape modification is advantageous for protected species. The case of a synanthropic tarantula, Brachypelma vagans. J Insect Conserv 16:479–488

    Google Scholar 

  • Main BY (1978) Biology of the arid-adapted Australian trapdoor spider Anidiops villosus (Rainbow). Bull Br Arachnol Soc 4:161–175

    Google Scholar 

  • Main BY (1987) Ecological disturbance and conservation of spiders: implications for biogeographic relics in southwestern Australia. In: Majer J (ed) The role of invertebrates in conservation and biological surveys. Western Australian Department of Conservation and Land Management Report, pp 89–98

    Google Scholar 

  • Mantyka-Pringle CS, Martin TG, Rhodes JR (2012) Interactions between climate and habitat loss effects on biodiversity: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Glob Chang Biol 18:1239–1252

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Marín-Martínez M, Rojas-Morales JA (2016) Predation by a Mygalomorphic Spider Xenesthis immanis (Araneae: Theraphosidae) on a Stream-dwelling Frog, Rheobates palmatus (Anura: Aromobatidae). Reptile Amphib 23:175–177

    Google Scholar 

  • Markovics J (2013) White-nosed Coati: Racoon’s cousin. Beaport, New York, 32 pp

    Google Scholar 

  • Marshall SD (2001) Tarantulas and other arachnids. Barron’s Educational Series, Hauppauge, NY, 109 pp

    Google Scholar 

  • Mendoza J (2016) Las tarántulas endémicas: problemática y conservación. In: Mendoza J (ed) La Biodiversidad de la Ciudad de México, vol II. Conabio/Sedema, Mexico City, pp 245–248

    Google Scholar 

  • Mendoza JI, Francke OF (2017) Systematic revision of Brachypelma red-kneed tarantulas (Araneae: Theraphosidae), and the use of DNA barcodes to assist in the identification and conservation of CITES-listed species. Invertebr Syst 31:157–179

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mendoza J, Francke O (2020) Systematic revision of Mexican threatened tarantulas Brachypelma (Araneae: Theraphosidae: Theraphosinae), with a description of a new genus, and implications on the conservation. Zool J Linnean Soc 188:82–147

    Google Scholar 

  • Menin M, Rodrigues DJ, Azevedo CS (2005) Predation on amphibians by spiders (Arachnida, Araneae) in the Neotropical region. Phyllomedusa 4:39–47

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Meyer-Rochow VB, Changkija S (1997) Uses of insects as human food in Papua New Guinea, Australia, and North-East India: cross cultural considerations and cautious conclusions. Ecol Food Nutr 36:159–187

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Midena K (2010) Spider hunting the latest craze in Cambodia. http://www.news.com.au/travel/news/spider-hunting-the-latest-craze/story-e6frfq80-1225880970301. Accessed 09 Aug 2018

  • Molur S, Daniel BA, Siliwal M (2008) Poecilotheria. The IUCN red list of threatened species. e.T63563A12681959. Accessed 18 Aug 2018

    Google Scholar 

  • Monge-Fuentes V, Medeiros FM, Alves GA, Silva JC, Mayer A, Carneiro L, Coimbra J, Soares K, Mortari MR (2015) Neuroactive compounds obtained from arthropod venoms as new therapeutic platforms for the treatment of neurological disorders. J Venom Anim Toxins incl Trop Dis 21:31

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Montes de Oca L, D’Elía G, Pérez-Miles F (2016) An integrative approach for species delimitation in the spider genus Grammostola (Theraphosidae, Mygalomorphae). Zool Scr 45:322–333

    Google Scholar 

  • Mora C, Tittensor DP, Adl S, Simpson AGB, Worm B (2011) How many species are there on Earth and in the Ocean? PLoS Biol 9:e1001127

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Morrison WR III, Lohr JL, Duchen P, Wilches R, Trujillo D, Mair M, Renner SS (2009) The impact of taxonomic change on conservation: Does it kill, can it save, or is it just irrelevant? Biol Conserv 142:3201–3206

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mourão CBF, Oliveira FN, Carvalho AC, Arenas CJ, Duque HM, Gonçalves JC, Macêdo JKA, Galante P, Schwartz CA, Mortari MR, Almeida MFM, Schwartz EF (2013) Venomic and pharmacological activity of Acanthoscurria paulensis (Theraphosidae) spider venom. Toxicon 61:129–138

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Münke C (2012) Informal market and potential contribution to rural livelihood (preliminary findings from a field survey) Khon Khaen, Regional Symposium. Available online at http://www.fao.org/fileadmin/templates/rap/files/meetings/2012/120531_ib3.pdf

  • Nadal L, Carmona A, Trouyet M (2013) Illegal wildlife trafficking. Secretariat of Environment and Natural Resources, Mexico, 32 pp

    Google Scholar 

  • Nanayakkara RP (2014) Tiger spiders “Poecilotheria” of Sri Lanka. Biodiversity Secretariat, Ministry of Environment & Renewable Energy, Colombo, 167 pp

    Google Scholar 

  • Nicholson GM (2013) Spider peptides. In: Kastin AJ (ed) Handbook of biologically active peptides, 2nd edn. Academic Press, California, 2032 pp

    Google Scholar 

  • Nunes GSS, De-Carvalho CB, Dias DM, Magina GCT, Carvalho CM (2010) Micrurus ibiboboca (Caatinga Coral Snake). Predation. Nat Hist Notes Herpet Rev 41:367–368

    Google Scholar 

  • Nyffeler M, Knörnschild M (2013) Bat predation by spiders. PLoS One 8:e58120

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Nyffeler M, Moor H, Foelix RF (2001) Spiders feeding on earthworms. J Arachnol 29:119–124

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ortiz D, Francke OF (2017) Reconciling morphological and molecular systematics in tarantulas (Araneae: Theraphosidae): revision of the Mexican endemic genus Bonnetina. Zool J Linnean Soc 180:819–886

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Paoletti MG, Dufour DL (2005) Edible Invertebrates among Amazonian Indians: a critical review of disappearing knowledge. In: Paoletti MG (ed) Ecological implications of Minilivestock. Science Publishers, Enfield, NH, pp 293–342

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  • Paulsen M (1999) A Harpactira burrow reveals the secrets of its occupant. J Br Tar Soc 15:14–23

    Google Scholar 

  • Pennington MW, Czerwinski A, Nortonb RS (2018) Peptide therapeutics from venom: current status and potential. Bioorg Med Chem 26:2738–2758

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Pérez-Miles F, Perafán C (2017) Behavior and biology of mygalomorphae. In: Viega C, Gonzaga MO (eds) Behavior and ecology of spiders. Springer, Cham, 448 pp

    Google Scholar 

  • Pérez-Miles F, Costa FG, Toscano-Gadea C, Mignone A (2004) Ecology and behaviour of the ‘road tarantulas’ Eupalaestrus weijenberghi and Acanthoscurria suina (Araneae, Theraphosidae) from Uruguay. J Nat Hist 39:483–498

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Phillips T (2009) London petshop owner try to smuggle 1000 spiders. The Guardian. Retrieved from: https://www.theguardian.com

  • Pizzi R (2006) Spiders. In: Lewbart G (ed) Invertebrate medicine, 1st edn. Wiley, Ames, IA, 327 pp

    Google Scholar 

  • Pizzi R, Carta L, George S (2003) Oral nematode infection of tarantulas. Vet Rec 152:695

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Powell R, Little LW, Smith DD (1984) Eine Wohngemeinschaft von Physalaemuspustulosus (Cope, 1864) (Salientia: Leptodactylidae) mit einer bodenbewohnenden Vogelspinne. Salamandra 20:273–274

    Google Scholar 

  • Ramírez-Castaño VA, Robledo-Ospina LE, Gutiérrez-Cárdenas PDA (2014) Hyloscirtus palmeri (Palmer’s Treefrog) Predation. Herp Rev 45:304

    Google Scholar 

  • Rankin W, Walls JG (2008) Manuales del terrario. Tarántulas y escorpiones. Editorial Hispano Europea, 64 pp

    Google Scholar 

  • Raven RJ (2010) A review of the Mygalomorphae: biology, morphology and systematics. Book of abstracts of the 18th international congress of arachnology, 11–17 Jul 2010, Siedle, Poland

    Google Scholar 

  • Reagan DP, Waide RB (1996) The food web of a tropical rain forest. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL, 623 pp

    Google Scholar 

  • Reichling SB (2003) Tarantulas of Belize. Krieger Publishing, Florida, p 127

    Google Scholar 

  • Reuter A, Mosig P (2010) Comercio y aprovechamiento de especies silvestres en México: observaciones sobre la gestión, tendencias y retos relacionados. Available online at: https://www.traffic.org/site/assets/files/10139/comercio-y-aprovechamiento-de-especies-silvestres-en-mexico.pdf

  • Richards KL, Milligan CJ, Richardson RJ, Jancovski N, Grunnet M, Jacobson LH, Undheim EAB, Mobli M, Chow CY, Herzig V, Csoti A, Panyi G, Reid CA, King GF, Petrou S (2018) Selective NaV1.1 activation rescues Dravet syndrome mice from seizures and premature death. Proc Natl Acad Sci 115:E8077–E8085

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Rigby R (2002) Cambodia: eating tarantulas with the spiderwomen of Skuon. Available at http://www.rhymer.net/tdarchive28b.htm. Accessed 16 Nov 2019

  • Robles de Benito R (2009) Las unidades de manejo para la conservación de la vida silvestre y el Corredor Biológico Mesoamericano México. CONABIO, Mexico, 134 pp

    Google Scholar 

  • Rödel MO, Brede C, Hirschfeld M, Schmitt T, Favreau P, Stöcklin R, Wunder C, Mebs D (2013) Chemical camouflage, a frog’s strategy to co-exist with aggressive ants. PLoS One 8:e81950

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Rodríguez C (2006) Directrices generales para la Conservación ex situ de fauna silvestre en parques zoológicos y acuarios de Colombia. Ministerio de Ambiente, Vivienda y Desarrollo Territorial de Colombia, Bogotá, 80 pp

    Google Scholar 

  • Rojo R (2004) Las Tarántulas de México: pequeños gigantes incomprendidos. Biodiversitas 56:7–11

    Google Scholar 

  • Rozwalka R, Dawidowicz L, Wawer W (2017) Three alien spider species (Araneae: Theridiidae) newly found in Poland. Fragm Faun 60:61–66

    Google Scholar 

  • Rudloff JP (2008) Zur Kenntnis der Gattung Phormictopus Pocock, 1901 – einem Faunenelement der Grossen Antillen (Mygalomorphae: Theraphosidae: Theraphosinae). Arthropoda 15:2–51

    Google Scholar 

  • Saez NJ, Senff S, Jensen JE, Er SY, Herzig V, Rash LD, King GF (2010) Spider-venom peptides as therapeutics. Toxins 2:2851–2871

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Sarukhán J, Carabias J, Koleff P, Urquiza-Haas T (2012) Capital natural de México. Acciones estratégicas para su valoración, preservación y recuperación. Comisión Nacional para el Conocimiento y Uso de la Biodiversidad, México, 95 pp

    Google Scholar 

  • Schmidt G (2003) Die Vogelspinnen: eine weltweite Übersicht. Neue Brehm-Bücherei, Hohenwarsleben, 383pp

    Google Scholar 

  • Schultz SA, Schultz MJ (2009) The tarantula keepers guide. Barrons Educational Series, New York, 384 pp

    Google Scholar 

  • SEMARNAP (1995) Norma Oficial Mexicana NOM-059-ECOL-1994, que determina las especies, subespecies de flora y fauna silvestres terrestres acuáticas en peligro de extinción, amenazadas, raras y las sujetas a protección especial y que establece especificaciones para su protección. Gaceta Ecológica, México 7:8–72

    Google Scholar 

  • Serath (2011) Fried tarantula, a popular delicacy in Cambodia. http://khmerization.blogspot.com/2011/11/fried-tarantula-popular-delicacy-in.html. Accessed 22 Aug 2018

  • Shochat E, Stefanov W, Whitehouse M, Faeth S (2004) Urbanization and spider diversity: influences of human modification of habitat structure and productivity. Ecol Appl 14:268–280

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Siliwal M, Ravichandran B (2008) Commensalism in Microhylid frogs and mygalomorph spiders. Zoos’ Print 23:13

    Google Scholar 

  • Smith AM (1990) Baboon spiders Tarantulas of Africa and The Middle East. Fitzgerald, London, 142 pp

    Google Scholar 

  • Smith AM (1994) Tarantula spiders: Tarantulas of the U.S.A. and Mexico. Fitzgerald, London, 411 pp

    Google Scholar 

  • Smith VR (2016) An unexpected journey: the biogeography and conservation ecology of the trapdoor spider genus Cantuaria Hogg, 1902. Doctor of Philosophy thesis, Lincoln University, 253 pp

    Google Scholar 

  • Streicher JW, Fajardo GR, Vázquez-Almazán CR (2011) Plestiodon sumichrasti. Predation Herp Rev 42:607–608

    Google Scholar 

  • Stuart BL, Rhodin AGL, Grismer LL, Hansel T (2006) Scientific description can imperil species. Science 312:1137

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Sunderland K, Samu F (2000) Effects of agricultural diversification on the abundance, distribution, and pest control potential of spiders: a review. Entomol Exp Appl 95:1–13

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Symondson WOC, Sunderland KD, Greenstone MH (2002) Can generalist predators be effective biocontrol agents. Annu Rev Entomol 47:561–594

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Taylor RJ, Doran N (2001) Use of terrestrial invertebrates as indicators of the ecological sustainability of forest management under the Montreal Process. J Insect Conserv 5:221–231

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Teyssié F (2015) Tarantulas of the world. NAP Editions, Verrières-le-Buisson, p 487

    Google Scholar 

  • Theron KJ (2017) Conservation of spider diversity within an agricultural mosaic: insights from the Greater Cape Floristic Region, biodiversity hotspot. Master Thesis, Faculty of Agri Sciences, Stellenbosch University

    Google Scholar 

  • Thomson SA, Pyle RL, Ahyong ST, Alonso-Zarazaga M, Ammirati J, Araya JF (2018) Taxonomy based on science is necessary for global conservation. PLoS Biol 16:e2005075

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Toledo LF (2005) Predation of juvenile and adult anurans by invertebrates: current knowledge and perspectives. Herp Rev 36:395–400

    Google Scholar 

  • Tulloch AIT, Auerbach N, Avery-Gomm S, Bayraktarov E, Butt N, Dickman CR, Ehmke G, Fisher DO, Grantham H, Holden MH, Lavery TH, Leseberg NP, Nicholls M, O’Connor J, Roberson L, Smyth AK, Stone Z, Tulloch V, Turak E, Wardle GM, Watson JEM (2018) A decision tree for assessing the risks and benefits of publishing biodiversity data. Nat Ecol Evol 2:1209–1217

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Turner SP, Longhorn SJ, Hamilton CA, Gabriel R, Pérez-Miles F, Vogler AP (2018) Re-evaluating conservation priorities of New World tarantulas (Araneae: Theraphosidae) in a molecular framework indicates nonmonophyly of the genera, Aphonopelma and Brachypelma. Syst Biodivers 16:89–107

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Uetz GW (1991) Habitat structure and spider foraging. In: Bell SS, Mccoy ED, Mushinsky HR (eds) Habitat structure: the physical arrangement of objects in space. Chapman and Hall, London, 464 pp

    Google Scholar 

  • Verdez JM, Cléton F (2004) Tarántulas. Introducción, Guía y Reproducción. Reptilia ediciones, España, 205 pp

    Google Scholar 

  • Vieira WLS, Gonçalves MBR, Nóbrega RP (2012) Predation on Tropidurus hispidus (Squamata: Tropiduridae) by Lasiodora klugi (Aranea: Theraphosidae) in the semiarid caatinga region of northeastern Brazil. Biota Neotrop 12:1–3

    Google Scholar 

  • West RC (2005) The Brachypelma of Mexico. J Br Tar Soc 20:108–119

    Google Scholar 

  • West RC, Nunn SC, Hogg S (2012) A new tarantula genus, Psednocnemis, from west Malaysia (Araneae: Theraphosidae), with cladistic analysis and biogeography of Selenocosmiinae Simon 1889. Zootaxa 3299:1–43

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wilson JB (1999) Guilds, functional types and ecological groups. Oikos 86:507–522

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wilson JS, Gunnel CF, Wahl DB, Pitts JP (2012) Testing the species limits of the tarantulas (Araneae: Theraphosidae) endemic to California’s Southern Coast Ranges, USA. Insect Conserv Div 6:365–371

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • World Spider Catalog (2020) World Spider Catalog Version 21.5. Natural History Museum Bern. Available online at http://wsc.nmbe.ch. Accessed 12 Sep 2020

  • WWF (2012) The fight against illicit wildlife trafficking: a consultation with governments. Dalberg, London

    Google Scholar 

  • Yen AL, Ro S (2013) The sale of tarantulas in Cambodia for food or medicine: is it sustainable? J Threat Taxa 5:3548–3551

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Zamorano P (2009) La flora y fauna silvestres en México y su regulación. Estudios Agrarios 15:159–167

    Google Scholar 

  • Zimmerman ME (2003) The black market for wildlife: combating transnational organized crime in the illegal wildlife trade. J Trans Law 36:1657–1689

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

Copyright information

© 2020 Springer Nature Switzerland AG

About this chapter

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this chapter

Mendoza, J. (2020). Situation and Conservation of Tarantulas in the Americas. In: Pérez-Miles, F. (eds) New World Tarantulas. Zoological Monographs, vol 6. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-48644-0_16

Download citation

Publish with us

Policies and ethics