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Clinical Neuropharmacology

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Neuroscience for Psychologists
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Abstract

The big field of clinical neuropharmacology is introduced by asking how “normal” and “disorder” are understood in the context of psychiatry followed by a very condensed classification of the most frequent mental problems. A brief introduction into pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics and the problems encountered in pharmacologic treatment is followed by a more detailed description of the more important groups of mental disorders, and their medical treatments including, in some cases, non-pharmacological ones.

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Notes

  1. 1.

    Even though that saying is proverbial, at least in the German-speaking countries, I was unable to find a written source for it.

  2. 2.

    See the “classic” book by Oliver Sacks (Sacks <CitationRef CitationID="CR50" >1998</Citation Ref>)

  3. 3.

    These enzymes found in all living systems have got a heme moiety that is also at the core of hemoglobin enabling it to carry oxygen. Heme absorbs at 450 nm producing a reddish color. In general, enzymes containing heme are able to transport/exchange electrons and are involved in oxydation/reduction processes.

  4. 4.

    “Palliative treatment” means taking measures that do not aim to cure the patient but rather to alleviate distress and pain of the patient and their caregivers.

  5. 5.

    “Lost years” in this context means years in which a person is disabled to fulfill their social roles such as creating sources of maintenance for her/himself and her/his dependents.

  6. 6.

    Enantiomers are isomers (7 2.1) that by having different steric configuration rotate polarized light to the right or the left respectively. Biological structures, such as enzymes or receptors, are sensitive to that difference.

  7. 7.

    For ketamine and other hallucinogens dependence may not occur.

  8. 8.

    The proportion of individuals in the population who have ever manifested a disorder, who are alive on a given day.

  9. 9.

    The “pyramid” is a bundle of axons in the medulla conveying motor signals from the motor cortex. Other networks important for voluntary movements thus are called “extrapyramidal”.

  10. 10.

    Diabetes can be due to low levels of insulin (type 1) or failing insulin receptors (type 2). The second one being much more frequent.

  11. 11.

    “Racemic” indicates a mixture of the two stereoisomers levo- and dextroamphetamine.

  12. 12.

    “Alcoholics Anonymous” has been pioneering in lay group support work for addicts and ex-addicts.

  13. 13.

    7 https://ourworldindata.org/smoking

  14. 14.

    Prions are infectious protein fragments.

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Correspondence to Marc L. Zeise .

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Zeise, M.L. (2021). Clinical Neuropharmacology. In: Zeise, M.L. (eds) Neuroscience for Psychologists. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-47645-8_5

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