To assist health science education programs in collaborating with students and trainees, this chapter addresses four areas underpinning effective accommodations. First, programs should identify disability resource professionals (DRPs), experts on disability and accommodation laws, and accommodations who can facilitate productive dialogue between the program and student; we provide tools to systematically determine curricular accommodations. Second, we describe techniques for integrating accommodations into a curriculum’s educational formative and summative assessments. Third, healthcare students and professionals with disabilities draw on their expertise to outline specific strategies and accommodations in classroom and clinical contexts, including the operating room and clinical emergencies; these are categorized by disability to facilitate the reader’s rapid reference. Fourth, educators can creatively engage existing clinical simulation labs in the clinical assessment of students with disabilities, determining effective accommodations for the clinical environment, and innovating solutions to clinical barriers for students with disabilities. With these time-tested tools and strategies for identifying and delivering accommodations, drawn directly from expert DRPs and people with disabilities, health science educators can successfully and fully open their programs to people with disabilities as future healthcare professionals.
- Health profession education
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Safe N Clear Communicator Mask. https://www.safenclear.com/
The Clear Mask. https://www.theclearmask.com/product
These guidelines are in line with the Americans With Disabilities guidelines for small businesses http://www.ada.gov/smbustxt.htm and may not apply to international regulations.
Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (§ 504).
Meeks LM, Jain N. Accessibility, inclusion, and action in medical education: lived experiences of learners and physicians with disabilities. 2018. Available from: https://store.aamc.org/accessibility-inclusion-and-action-in-medical-education-lived-experiences-of-learners-and-physicians-with-disabilities.html.
Karin Muraszko. Doctor with spina bifida defies expectations CNN Health [Internet]. 2016 April 27. Available from: https://www.cnn.com/2016/04/27/health/turning-points-dr-karin-muraszko/index.html.
Meeks LM, Bisagno J, Jain N, Herzer K. Support students with disabilities in medicine and health care programs. Disabil Compliance High Educ. 2015;21(3):1–5.
Laird-Metke E, Serrantino J, Culley JL. The process for determining disability accommodations. In: The guide to assisting students with disabilities: equal access in health science and professional education. New York: Springer Publishing; 2015. p. 33.
In a conversation with Dean of Students from Johns Hopkins Medical School (2019, Tom Keonig, oral communication, November).
LCME Element Structure and Function of a Medical School 12.4.
Meeks LM, Jain NR. Summative and formative assessments: do we accommodate both? Disabil Compliance High Educ. 2017;22(9):1–5.
Meeks LM, Jain NR. Accommodating students on anatomy and other lab practical exams. Disabil Compliance High Educ. 2017;23(3):1–7.
Meeks LM, Jain NR. Accommodating standardized patient exams: the OSCEs. Disabil Compliance High Educ. 2016;22(4):7–7.
Brown-Weissmann Z, Carli A. Learners with ADHD: concerns and coping mechanisms in the clinic. Disabil Compliance High Educ. 2016;22(5):7.
Fitzsimons MG, Brookman JC, Arnholz SH, Baker K. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and successful completion of anesthesia residency: a case report. Acad Med. 2016;91(2):210–4.
Meeks LM, Brown JT, Warczak J. Accommodate learners with ASD in a clinical setting. Disabil Compliance High Educ. 2017;23(4):1–5.
Serrantino J, Meeks LM, Jain NR, Clifford GC, Brown JT. Accommodations in didactic, lab, and clinical settings. In: The guide to assisting students with disabilities: equal access in health science and professional education. New York: Springer Publishing; 2015. p. 59–88.
Meeks LM, Jain NR. Accommodating chronic health conditions in medical education. Disabil Compliance High Educ. 2018;23(10):1–6.
Moreland CJ, Latimore D, Sen A, Arato N, Zazove P. Deafness among physicians and trainees: a national survey. Acad Med. 2013;88(2):224–32.
Registry of Interpreters for the Deaf. Certification overview [Internet]. Available from: https://rid.org/rid-certification-overview/.
Texas Board for the Evaluation of Interpreters. Texas Health and Human Services [Internet]. Available from: https://hhs.texas.gov/doing-business-hhs/provider-portals/assistive-services-providers/board-evaluation-interpreters-certification-program.
Certification Commission for Healthcare Interpreters. Certifications [Internet]. Available from: http://cchicertification.org/certifications/.
Testing, Evaluation, and Certification Unit, Inc. Welcome to TECUnit [Internet]. Available from: http://www.tecunit.org/.
Earhart A, Hauser A. The other side of the curtain. In: Deaf professionals and designated interpreters: a new paradigm. 2008. p. 143–164.
Meeks LM, Laird-Metke E, Rollins M, Gandhi S, Stechert M, Jain NR. Practice brief: accommodating deaf and hard of hearing students in operating room environments – a case study. J Postsecond Educ Disabil. 2015;28(3):383–8.
Meeks LM, Engelman A, Booth A, Argenyi M. Deaf and hard-of-hearing learners in emergency medicine. Western J Emerg Med. 2018;19(6):1014. Gower T, Richards E. A tough job made tougher. Proto Magazine. Massachusetts General Hospital; 2014 [cited 2019Sep8]. Available from: http://archive.protomag.com/assets/doctors-with-disabilities-tough-job-made-tougher.html.
Serrantino J, Hori J. Memory, retention, and retrieval: using Livescribe smartpen as an accommodation. Disabil Compliance High Educ. 2017;23(2):7–7.
Blacklock B. Use of an intermediary as reasonable accommodation for medical education. Disabil Compliance High Educ. 2017;23(6):7–7.
Littrell C. Apple watch breaking barriers for students with disabilities. Disabil Compliance High Educ. 2018;23(7):7–7.
Face of neurosurgery: Dr. Karin Muraszko a unique and remarkable neurosurgeon [Internet]. Neurosurgery blog: more than just brain surgery. The American Association of Neurological Surgeons and the Congress of Neurological Surgeons; 2016. Available from: https://www.neurosurgeryblog.org/2016/01/29/face-of-neurosurgery-dr-karin-muraszko-a-unique-and-remarkable-neurosurgeon/.
Reporter DM. Paralyzed doctor still performs surgery thanks to stand-up wheelchair. Daily Mail Online. Associated Newspapers; Cited 2019 Aug 8. Available from: https://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2513994/Paralyzed-doctor-performs-surgery-thanks-stand-wheelchair.html.
Bibbins-Domingo K, Grossman DC, Curry SJ, Barry MJ, Davidson KW, Doubeni CA, Epling JW, García FA, Kemper AR, Krist AH, Kurth AE. Screening for gynecologic conditions with pelvic examination: US Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. JAMA. 2017;317(9):947–53.
US Preventive Services Task Force. Screening for prostate cancer: US Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med. 2008;149(3):185.
Gaba DM. The future vision of simulation in health care. Qual Saf Health Care. 2004;13(1):i2–10.
Healthcare Simulation Dictionary [Internet]. Society of Simulation in Health Care; 2016 [cited 2019 Jun 29]. Available from: https://www.ssih.org/Portals/48/Docs/Dictionary/simdictionary.pdf
Halamek LP. Association of Medical School Pediatric Department Chairs, Inc. teaching versus learning and the role of simulation-based training in pediatrics. J Pediatr. 2007;151(4):329–30.
Kalaniti K, Campbell DM. Simulation-based medical education: time for a pedagogical shift. Indian Pediatr. 2015;52(1):41–5.
Kalaniti K. Do paediatric residents have the skills to “lead” newborn resuscitations? Acta Paediatr Oslo Nor 1992. 2014;103(6):592–3.
Anderson LW, Krathwohl DR, Airasian PW, Cruikshank KA, Mayer RE, Pintrich PR, et al. A taxonomy for learning, teaching, and assessing: a revision of Bloom’s taxonomy of educational objectives, Abridged edition. 1st ed. New York: Pearson; 2000.
Issenberg SB, McGaghie WC, Petrusa ER, Lee Gordon D, Scalese RJ. Features and uses of high-fidelity medical simulations that lead to effective learning: a BEME systematic review. Med Teach. 2005 Jan;27(1):10–28.
Kenney MJ, Jain NR, Meeks LM, Laird-Metke E, Hori J, McGough JD. Learning in the digital age: assistive technology and electronic access. In: Meeks LM, Jain NR, editors. The guide to assisting students with disabilities: equal access in health science and professional education. 1st ed. New York: Springer Publishing Company; 2016. p. 119–40.
Serrantino J, Meeks LM, Jain NR, Clifford GC, Brown JT. Accommodations in didactic, lab, and clinical settings. In: Meeks LM, Jain NR, editors. The guide to assisting students with disabilities: equal access in health science and professional education. 1st ed. New York: Springer Publishing Company; 2016. p. 59–88.
Editors and Affiliations
Rights and permissions
© 2020 Springer Nature Switzerland AG
About this chapter
Cite this chapter
Moreland, C.J. et al. (2020). Clinical Accommodations and Simulation. In: Meeks, L., Neal-Boylan, L. (eds) Disability as Diversity. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-46187-4_10
Publisher Name: Springer, Cham
Print ISBN: 978-3-030-46186-7
Online ISBN: 978-3-030-46187-4
eBook Packages: MedicineMedicine (R0)