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The Properties and Use of Cannabis sativa Herb and Extracts

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Abstract

The Cannabis plant has been used for centuries for fiber products and for psychotropic effects. In the recent past, the chemistry and pharmacokinetics of THC have been thoroughly investigated, although adverse effects continue to be identified and investigated. CBD has recently become of greater interest to the scientific community for the development of non-psychotropic pharmaceuticals. The nature and properties of Cannabis and the two phytocannabinoids of primary interest (THC and CBD) assist in the understanding of the methods of preparation and use of Cannabis and the extracts of Cannabis. In recent years, the phytocannabinoids have been first medicalized, then legalized, and, ultimately, commercialized. The medicalization of both THC and CBD is of concern since scientific evidence for the medical benefits is limited, contradictory, or non-existent. The U.S. has traditionally used a scientific approach to approval of medications to guarantee a known efficacy, dose, and purity. That approach to acceptance of medications is in distinct contrast to the products being produced in many fields and barns by growers with minimal knowledge of quality control, extraction processes, contents, or efficacy of the final product.

Keywords

  • Cannabis
  • sativa
  • Tetrahydrocannabinol
  • THC
  • Tetrahydrocannabinolic acid
  • THCA
  • Cannabidiol
  • CBD
  • Cannabidiolic acid
  • CBDA
  • Marijuana
  • Hemp
  • Ganja
  • Pot

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Abbreviations

CBD:

Cannabidiol

CBDA:

Cannabidiolic acid

CBD-COOH:

Cannabidiol carboxylic acid

CCR:

Colorado Code of Regulations

CSA:

Controlled Substances Act

DEA:

U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration

FDA:

U.S. Food and Drug Administration

Farm Bill:

Agricultural Improvement Act of 2018

NAS:

National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine

SAMHSA:

Substance Abuse Mental Health Services Administration

SAMHDA:

Substance Abuse Mental Health Data Archives

THCA:

Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid

THC:

Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol

THC-COOH:

Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid

11-OH-THC:

11-Hydroxy-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol

U.K.:

United Kingdom

U.S.:

United States

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Acknowledgments

The author would like to thank Ms. Kyong Smith, Library Technician, Evans Army Community Hospital, Lane Medical Library, Fort Carson, Colorado, for exceptional assistance with literature searches.

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Hilderbrand, R.L. (2020). The Properties and Use of Cannabis sativa Herb and Extracts. In: Finn, K. (eds) Cannabis in Medicine. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-45968-0_1

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