Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are heterogenous compounds that interfere with the conventional mechanism of endocrine system primarily through disrupting release, transfer, and production of hormones. EDCs are predominately synthetic products that are extensively found in our food, daily use products, and environment. The most commonly discovered EDCs include bisphenol A, phthalates, polychlorinated biphenyls, vinclozolin, and diethylstilbestrol. Children are susceptible to EDCs in their early life through breast milk consumption, placental transfer, and direct oral route. Due to obesogenic property of EDCs, they are capable to cause weight gain either through direct activation of adipocytes or through indirect alterations. A strong linkage is reported to exist between EDCs and childhood obesity. Bisphenol A has been broadly reported to be associated with childhood obesity. EDCs impart childhood obesity through several mechanisms including mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), epigenetic mechanism (DNA methylation), and estrogen receptor. The most common obesogenic EDCs include bisphenols, phthalates, polychlorinated biphenyls, parabens, organotin, and non-steroidal estrogens. These obesogenic EDCs produce both short-term and long-term consequences on the overall health of children resulting in cardiovascular diseases, psychological disorders, liver diseases, breathing problems, diabetes (type 1 and 2), bone abnormalities, and even premature mortality. In order to avoid the aftermath of EDC induced childhood obesity, effective measures should be adopted. The most important step in the management of childhood obesity is the avoidance and removal of EDCs contributing to obesity. Furthermore, certain preventive strategies may also be adopted to keep children and pregnant females protected from the harm of EDCs.
- Childhood obesity
- Endocrine disrupting chemicals
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Mallhi, T.H., Khokhar, A., Khan, Y.H., Alotaibi, N.H., Khan, A. (2021). Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals Induced Childhood Obesity. In: Akash, M.S.H., Rehman, K., Hashmi, M.Z. (eds) Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals-induced Metabolic Disorders and Treatment Strategies. Emerging Contaminants and Associated Treatment Technologies. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-45923-9_10
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