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Environmental Security for the Promotion of Pan-European Integration: The OSCE as a ‘Europeanising Actor’ in the Balkans

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Part of the Security, Conflict and Cooperation in the Contemporary World book series (SCCCW)

Abstract

After the conflicts of the 1990s, the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) became one of the primary actors working towards the reconstruction and stabilisation of the Western Balkans. Yet while it also considered how to turn countries from the region into potential member states of the European Union (EU), the OSCE was unique in offering the ability to look beyond the binary division of East and West. This was an opportunity about which the OSCE was well aware. Indeed, in the post-Cold War setting it was driven to find new areas of activity to demonstrate its relevance in the new global order: the situation in the Balkans appeared to require a comprehensive security approach of precisely the kind the OSCE could offer. This chapter consequently considers the post-conflict activities of the OSCE in the Balkans through the point of view of environmental security. It shows how the OSCE carved a role for itself as a regional stability provider by launching significant environmental cooperation schemes. Its ability to do so is studied through the way it securitised environmental cooperation. The OSCE used this cooperation to reinforce regional stability and add ecological objectives to security discourse. The work thus also had normative goals that can be seen as a part of the more general efforts for the Europeanisation of the Balkan region. The chapter will therefore discuss the ways in which the OSCE used the environmental security approach for stabilisation but also set its activities to the wider context of European integration.

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Notes

  1. 1.

    Emma J. Stewart, ‘Restoring EU–OSCE Cooperation for Pan-European Conflict Prevention’, Contemporary Security Policy 29, no. 2 (2008): 266–84.

  2. 2.

    ‘Western Balkans’ is used here as the term to refer to the region that covers the countries that formerly were part of Yugoslavia: Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia, Kosovo (under United Nations Security Council Resolution 1244), Macedonia, Montenegro and Serbia. Slovenia is excluded from this discussion as its stabilisation and Europeanisation developed far ahead of the other ex-Yugoslav countries and it was rarely included in any peacebuilding activities.

  3. 3.

    Einar Bull, ‘Opening Address’, in Victor-Yves Ghebali & Daniel Warner (eds.), The Operational Role of the OSCE in South-Eastern Europe. Contributing to regional stability in the Balkans (London and New York: Routledge, 2001), xi–xv.

  4. 4.

    Thomas M. Buchsbaum, ‘The OSCE and the Stability Pact for South Eastern Europe: A Mother-Daughter, Brother-Sister or Partner Relationship?’, Helsinki Monitor 11 (2000), 62–79, here 62.

  5. 5.

    For instance, Jon Barnett, ‘Global Environmental Change and Human Security: An Introduction’, in Richard Matthew et al. (eds.), Global Environmental Change and Human Security (MA: Cambridge, MIT Press, 2010), 3–32.

  6. 6.

    Thomas Homer-Dixon, ‘Environmental Scarcities and Violent Conflict: Evidence from Cases’, International Security 19, no. 1 (1994): 5–40; Wench Hauge and Tanja Ellingsen, ‘Beyond Environmental Scarcity: Causal Pathways to Conflict’, Journal of Peace Research 35, no. 3 (1998): 299–317.

  7. 7.

    Jon Barnett, Richard A. Matthew and Karen O’Brien, ‘Global Environmental Change and Human Security’, in Hans Günter Brauch et al. (eds.), Globalization and Environmental Challenges (Berlin and Heidelberg: Springer, 2008), 355–61.

  8. 8.

    See for example Ken Conca and Geoff D. Dabelko (eds.), Environmental Peacemaking (Baltimore, PA: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2002).

  9. 9.

    Sarah Snyder, Human Rights Activism and the End of the Cold War: A Transnational History of the Helsinki Network (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2011).

  10. 10.

    Daniel C. Thomas, The Helsinki Effect: International Norms, Human Rights, and the Demise of Communism (Princeton and Oxford: Princeton University Press, 2001).

  11. 11.

    Christian Nünlist, ‘Helsinki+40 in the Historical Context’, Security and Human Rights 25, no 2 (2014): 198–209.

  12. 12.

    OSCE Secretariat Geneva, ‘The OSCE Concept of Comprehensive and Co-operative Security: An overview of major milestones’ (2009), 1, available at https://www.osce.org/secretariat/37592?download=true (accessed 1 August 2019).

  13. 13.

    Nünlist 2014, ‘Helsinki+40 in the Historical Context’, 202–3.

  14. 14.

    Frank Schimmelfennig and Ulrich Sedelmeier, ‘The Politics of European Union Enlargement: Theoretical and Comparative Perspectives’, in Frank Schimmelfennig and Ulrich Sedelmeier (eds.), The Politics of European Union Enlargement: Theoretical Approaches (London: Routledge, 2005), 3–29.

  15. 15.

    As does Peter Van Ham, ‘EU–OSCE Relations: Partners or Rivals in Security?’, in Knud Erik Jørgensen (ed.), The European Union and International Organizations (London and New York: Routledge, 2009), 145–62.

  16. 16.

    Ben Rosamond, ‘Conceptualising the EU Model of Governance in World Politics’, European Foreign Policy Review 10 no. 4 (2005): 463–78.

  17. 17.

    Van Ham, ‘EU–OSCE Relations’, 135–36.

  18. 18.

    Kevin Featherstone, ‘Introduction: In the name of “Europe”’, in Kevin Featherstone and Claudio M. Radaelli (eds.), The Politics of Europeanization (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003), 3–26; Johan P. Olsen, ‘The Many Faces of Europeanization’, Journal of Common Market Studies 40, no. 5 (2002): 921–52.

  19. 19.

    Tanja Börzel and Aron Buzogány, ‘Environmental Organisations and the Europeanisation of Public Policy in Central and Eastern Europe: The Case of Biodiversity Governance. Environmental Politics 19, no. 5 (2010): 708–35.

  20. 20.

    Van Ham, ‘EU–OSCE Relations’, 136.

  21. 21.

    Sven Biscop, ‘The EU, the OSCE and the European Security Architecture: Network or Labyrinth?’, Asia-Europe Journal 4, no. 1 (2006): 25–9; Nünlist, ‘Helsinki+40 in the Historical Context’, 205–06.

  22. 22.

    Van Ham, ‘EU–OSCE Relations’, 145; Biscop, The EU, the OSCE and the European Security Architecture, 25–6.

  23. 23.

    Stefan Lehne, ‘Reviving the OSCE: European Security and the Ukraine Crisis’, Carnegie Europe Report (2015): 1–2, available at https://carnegieeurope.eu/2015/09/22/reviving-osce-european-security-and-ukraine-crisis-pub-61362 (accessed 5 March 2019).

  24. 24.

    Johanna Rainio-Niemi, ‘Cold War Neutrality in Europe: Lessons to be Learned’, in Heinz Gärtner (ed.), Engaged Neutrality: An Evolved Approach to the Cold War (London: Lexington Books, 2017), 15–36.

  25. 25.

    Buchsbaum, ‘The OSCE and the Stability Pact for South Eastern Europe, 62–79.

  26. 26.

    Lykke Friis and Anna Murphy, ‘“Turbo-Charged Negotiations”: The EU and the Stability Pact for South Eastern Europe’, Journal of European Public Policy 7, no. 5 (2000), 767–86.

  27. 27.

    Dimitar Bechev, ‘Carrots, Sticks and Norms: The EU and Regional Cooperation in Southeast Europe’, Journal of Southern Europe and the Balkans 8 no. 1 (2006): 27–43.

  28. 28.

    Bull, ‘Opening Address’.

  29. 29.

    Buchsbaum, ‘The OSCE and the Stability Pact for South Eastern Europe’, 62.

  30. 30.

    OSCE, ‘The OSCE Concept of Comprehensive and Co-operative Security’.

  31. 31.

    OSCE, ‘Regional Strategy for South Eastern Europe: 275th Plenary Meeting, Decision No. 344. PC Journal No. 275, Agenda 7’, 16 March 2000, 1.

  32. 32.

    OSCE, MC.DOC/2/00, ‘Eighth Meeting of the Ministerial Council 27 and 28 November 2000: Vienna Declaration on the Role of the OSCE in South-Eastern Europe’, 2000, 2. Available at https://www.osce.org/pc/26667?download=true (Last visited 30.1.2019).

  33. 33.

    OSCE, ‘Regional Strategy for South Eastern Europe: 275th Plenary Meeting’, 2000, 2.

  34. 34.

    Buchsbaum, The OSCE and the Stability Pact for South Eastern Europe 2000, 72.

  35. 35.

    OSCE, ‘Regional Strategy for South Eastern Europe’, 1–2.

  36. 36.

    OSCE, ‘Follow-up Seminar to the 7th and 8th Economic Forum: Strengthening the OSCE’s Role in the Realm of Environment and Security’, July 2001, available at https://www.osce.org/eea/42179?download=true (accessed 21 July 2019).

  37. 37.

    OSCE, ‘Follow-up Seminar to the 7th and 8th Economic Forum’.

  38. 38.

    OSCE, ‘Report on the CSCE/OSCE and the Environment 1975–2000’, June 2001, 9–10, available at http://www.osce.org/eea/42320?download=true (accessed 13 March 2019).

  39. 39.

    R. Zaagman, ‘OSCE Conflict Prevention and the Economic and Environmental Dimension’, Helsinki Monitor 10, no. 4 (1999), 40–3.

  40. 40.

    OSCE, GAL/3/99, 21–22, ‘Seventh Meeting of the Economic Forum in Prague 25–28 May 1999: Summary. OSCE Senior Council E’, available at http://www.osce.org/eea/42132?download=true (accessed 13 March 2019).

  41. 41.

    OSCE, ‘Seventh Meeting of the Economic Forum’, 21–2.

  42. 42.

    Ibid., 21.

  43. 43.

    OSCE Secretariat Geneva, ‘Economic and Environmental Forum’, 2019, available at https://www.osce.org/secretariat/eeforum (accessed 21 July 2019).

  44. 44.

    OSCE, EF.GAL/11/00, OSCE Senior Council, ‘Summary: Eighth Meeting of the Economic Forum in Prague 11–14 April 2000’, available at http://www.osce.org/eea/42131?download=true (accessed 14 March 2019).

  45. 45.

    OSCE, ‘Follow-up Seminar to the 7th and 8th Economic Forum’, 29–30.

  46. 46.

    Ibid.

  47. 47.

    Ibid., 98–101.

  48. 48.

    Emma Hakala, ‘International Organisations and the Securitisation of the Environment in Post-Conflict Western Balkans’, PhD thesis, University of Helsinki, 2018, 134–5.

  49. 49.

    Later on, the UNECE and Regional Environmental Centre (REC) also joined the ENVSEC partnership, while NATO became an associate partner.

  50. 50.

    OSCE, UNDP and UNEP, ‘Environment and Security Initiative Addressing Environmental Risks and Promoting Peace and Stability – The post Kiev process’, 24 April 2003, available at https://www.iisd.org/pdf/2003/envsec_post_kiev.pdf (accessed 15 March 2019).

  51. 51.

    OSCE, UNDP and UNEP, ‘Environment and Security: A Framework for Cooperation in Europe: Revised Draft Background Paper’, 8 January 2002, 7–8, available at http://www.envsec.org/publications/Environment%20and%20Security.%20A%20framework%20for%20cooperation%20in%20Europe.%20Draft%20background%20paper_January%202002.pdf (accessed 30 January 2019).

  52. 52.

    Hakala, ‘International Organisations and the Securitisation of the Environment in Post-Conflict Western Balkans’, 149.

  53. 53.

    OSCE, UNDP and UNEP, ‘Environment and Security: A Framework for Cooperation in Europe’, 6.

  54. 54.

    Ibid., 7.

  55. 55.

    For example OSCE, ‘Follow-up Seminar to the 7th and 8th Economic Forum’, 29–30.

  56. 56.

    OSCE, UNDP and UNEP, ‘Environment and Security Initiative Addressing Environmental Risks and Promoting Peace and Stability – The post-Kiev process’, 6.

  57. 57.

    ENVSEC generally used the term ‘South Eastern Europe’, which covers a wider region.

  58. 58.

    OSCE, UNDP and UNEP, ‘Environment and Security – Transforming risks into cooperation: The case of Central Asia and South Eastern Europe’, 2003, 16–24, available at https://www.iisd.org/pdf/2003/envsec_cooperation.pdf (accessed 17 March 2019).

  59. 59.

    Hakala, ‘International Organisations and the Securitisation of the Environment in Post-Conflict Western Balkans’, 155.

  60. 60.

    Ibid., 276.

  61. 61.

    OSCE, ‘Follow-up Seminar to the 7th and 8th Economic Forum’, 6.

  62. 62.

    Hakala, ‘International Organisations and the Securitisation of the Environment in Post-Conflict Western Balkans’, 271–83.

  63. 63.

    ENVSEC and OSCE, ‘The Aarhus Centres – A Brief Introduction’, 2012, available at http://www.osce.org/secretariat/89067?download=true (accessed 17 March 2019).

  64. 64.

    Hakala, ‘International Organisations and the Securitisation of the Environment in Post-Conflict Western Balkans’, 235–37.

  65. 65.

    ENVSEC and OSCE. ‘The Aarhus Centres – A Brief Introduction’.

  66. 66.

    Emma Hakala, ‘Cooperation for the Enhancement of Environmental Citizenship in the Context of Securitization: The Case of an OSCE Project in Serbia’, Journal of Civil Society 8, no. 4 (2012): 385–99.

  67. 67.

    Author interview with a representative from the Aarhus Centre in Sarajevo, 19 May 2017; Author interview with a representative from the Aarhus Centre in Banja Luka, 30 June 2017.

  68. 68.

    Hakala, ‘International Organisations and the Securitisation of the Environment in Post-Conflict Western Balkans’, 235–37.

  69. 69.

    ENVSEC and OSCE, ‘The Aarhus Centres – A Brief Introduction’, 3.

  70. 70.

    Hakala, ‘International Organisations and the Securitisation of the Environment in Post-Conflict Western Balkans’, 235–37.

  71. 71.

    OSCE Bosnia, ‘Project Title: Promoting the Implementation of Aarhus Convention in the South-Eastern European Region’, OSCE Bosnia (2010), 1.

  72. 72.

    OSCE, ‘The OSCE Concept of Comprehensive and Co-operative Security’, 1.

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Hakala, E. (2020). Environmental Security for the Promotion of Pan-European Integration: The OSCE as a ‘Europeanising Actor’ in the Balkans. In: Broad, M., Kansikas, S. (eds) European Integration Beyond Brussels. Security, Conflict and Cooperation in the Contemporary World. Palgrave Macmillan, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-45445-6_5

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-45445-6_5

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