Skip to main content

Circuit Averaging, Averaged Switch Modeling, and Simulation

  • Chapter
  • First Online:
Fundamentals of Power Electronics

Abstract

Circuit averaging is another well-known technique for derivation of converter equivalent circuits. Rather than averaging the converter state equations, with the circuit averaging technique we average the converter waveforms directly. All manipulations are performed on the circuit diagram, instead of on its equations, and hence the circuit averaging technique gives a more physical interpretation to the model. Since circuit averaging involves averaging and small-signal linearization, it is equivalent to state-space averaging. However, in many cases circuit averaging is easier to apply, and allows the small-signal ac model to be written almost by inspection. The circuit averaging technique can also be applied directly to a number of different types of converters and switch elements, including phase-controlled rectifiers, PWM converters operated in discontinuous conduction mode or with current programming, and quasi-resonant converters—these are described in later chapters.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this chapter

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or Ebook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Chapter
USD 29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
eBook
USD 79.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as EPUB and PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
Hardcover Book
USD 99.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Durable hardcover edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info

Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout

Purchases are for personal use only

Institutional subscriptions

References

  1. J. Kassakian, M. Schlecht, G. Vergese, Principles of Power Electronics (Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, 1991)

    Google Scholar 

  2. G.W. Wester, R.D. Middlebrook, Low-frequency characterization of switched dc-dc converters. IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst. AES-9, 376–385 (1973)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. V. Vorperian, R. Tymerski, F.C. Lee, Equivalent circuit models for resonant and PWM switches. IEEE Trans. Power Electron. 4, 205–214 (1989)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. V. Vorperian, Simplified analysis of PWM converters using the model of the PWM switch: Parts I and II. IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst. AES-26, 490–505 (1990)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. S. Freeland, R.D. Middlebrook, A unified analysis of converters with resonant switches, in IEEE Power Electronics Specialists Conference (PESC 1987), pp. 20–30, 1987

    Google Scholar 

  6. A. Witulski, R. Erickson, Extension of state-space averaging to resonant switches—and beyond. IEEE Trans. Power Electron. 5, 98–109 (1990)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. D. Maksimović, S. Ćuk, A unified analysis of PWM converters in discontinuous modes. IEEE Trans. Power Electron. 6, 476–490 (1991)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. D.J. Shortt, F.C. Lee, Extensions of the discrete-average models for converter power stages, in IEEE Power Electronics Specialists Conference (PESC 1983), pp. 23–37, June 1983

    Google Scholar 

  9. O. Al-Naseem, R.W. Erickson, Prediction of switching loss variations by averaged switch modeling, in IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference (APEC 2000), pp. 242–248, February 2000

    Google Scholar 

  10. R. Tymerski, V. Vorperian, Generation, classification, and analysis of switched-mode dc-to-dc converters by the use of converter cells, in International Telecommunications Energy Conference (INTELEC), pp. 181–195, October 1986

    Google Scholar 

  11. D. Wollaver, Fundamental Study of DC to DC Conversion System, Ph.D. thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1969

    Google Scholar 

  12. L.W. Nagel, D. Pederson, SPICE (Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis), Tech. Rep. UCB/ERL M382, EECS Department, University of California, Berkeley, Apr 1973

    Google Scholar 

  13. R.J. Dirkman, The simulation of general circuits containing ideal switches, in IEEE Power Electronics Specialists Conference, pp. 185–194, 1987

    Google Scholar 

  14. C.J. Hsiao, R.B. Ridley, H. Naitoh, F.C. Lee, Circuit-oriented discrete-time modeling and simulation of switching converters, in IEEE Power Electronics Specialists Conference, pp. 167–176, 1987

    Google Scholar 

  15. R.C. Wong, H.A. Owen, T.G. Wilson, An efficient algorithm for the time-domain simulation of regulated energy-storage dc-to-dc converters. IEEE Trans. Power Electron. 2, 154–168 (1987)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. A.M. Luciano, A.G.M. Strollo, A fast time-domain algorithm for simulation of switching power converters. IEEE Trans. Power Electron. 2, 363–370 (1990)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. D. Bedrosian, J. Vlach, Time-domain analysis of networks with internally controlled switches. IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. I Fundam. Theory Appl. 39, 199–212 (1992)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. P. Pejović, D. Maksimović, A new algorithm for simulation of power electronic systems using piecewise-linear device models. IEEE Trans. Power Electron. 10, 340–348 (1995)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. P. Pejović, A Method for Simulation of Power Electronic Systems Using Piecewise-Linear Device Models, Ph.D. thesis, University of Colorado, Boulder, April 1995

    Google Scholar 

  20. D. Li, R. Tymerski, T. Ninomiya, PECS—an efficacious solution for simulating switched networks with nonlinear elements, in IEEE Power Electronics Specialists Conference, pp. 274–279, June 2000

    Google Scholar 

  21. V. Bello, Computer aided analysis of switching regulators using SPICE2, in IEEE Power Electronics Specialists Conference, pp. 3–11, June 1980

    Google Scholar 

  22. V. Bello, Using the SPICE2 CAD package for easy simulation of switching regulators in both continuous and discontinuous conduction modes, in Proceedings of the Eighth National Solid-State Power Conversion Conference (Powercon 8), April 1981

    Google Scholar 

  23. V. Bello, Using the SPICE2 CAD package to simulate and design the current mode converter, in Proceedings of the Eleventh National Solid-State Power Conversion Conference (Powercon 11), April 1984

    Google Scholar 

  24. D. Kimhi, S. Ben-Yaakov, A SPICE model for current mode PWM converters operating under continuous inductor current conditions. IEEE Trans. Power Electron. 6, 281–286 (1991)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Y. Amran, F. Huliehel, S. Ben-Yaakov, A unified SPICE compatible average model of PWM converters. IEEE Trans. Power Electron. 6, 585–594 (1991)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. S. Ben-Yaakov, Z. Gaaton, Generic SPICE compatible model of current feedback in switch mode converters. Electron. Lett. 28, 1356–1358 (1992)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. S. Ben-Yaakov, Z. Gaaton, Average simulation of PWM converters by direct implementation of behavioral relationships, in IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference, pp. 510–516, February 1993

    Google Scholar 

  28. S. Ben-Yaakov, D. Adar, Average models as tools for studying dynamics of switch mode dc-dc converters, in IEEE Power Electronics Specialists Conference (PESC 1994), pp. 1369–1376, June 1994

    Google Scholar 

  29. V.M. Canalli, J.A. Cobos, J.A. Oliver, J. Uceda, Behavioral large signal averaged model for dc/dc switching power converters, in IEEE Power Electronics Specialists Conference, pp. 1675–1681, June 1996

    Google Scholar 

  30. N. Jayaram, D. Maksimović, Power factor correctors based on coupled-inductor SEPIC and Ćuk converters with nonlinear-carrier control, in IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference, pp. 468–474, February 1998

    Google Scholar 

  31. C. Basso, Switch-Mode Power Supplies: SPICE Simulations and Practical Designs, 2nd edn. (McGraw-Hill, August 2014)

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

Copyright information

© 2020 Springer Nature Switzerland AG

About this chapter

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this chapter

Erickson, R.W., Maksimović, D. (2020). Circuit Averaging, Averaged Switch Modeling, and Simulation. In: Fundamentals of Power Electronics. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-43881-4_14

Download citation

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-43881-4_14

  • Published:

  • Publisher Name: Springer, Cham

  • Print ISBN: 978-3-030-43879-1

  • Online ISBN: 978-3-030-43881-4

  • eBook Packages: EngineeringEngineering (R0)

Publish with us

Policies and ethics