Short Paper: Secure Offline Payments in Bitcoin

  • Taisei TakahashiEmail author
  • Akira Otsuka
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 11599)


Double-spending attacks on fast payments are one of the fatal architectural problems in Cryptocurrencies. Dmitrienko et al. proposed an offline fast payment scheme that relies on tamper-proof wallets produced by trustworthy manufacturers. With the wallets, the payee can immediately trust the transactions generated by the wallets without waiting for their registration to the blockchain. Secure coin-preloading to the wallet is important, while illegal coin-preloading can cause over/double-spending by the trusted wallets. For this, they proposed an interesting protocol that makes use of a fragment of the main blockchain to prove to the wallets the legitimacy of preloaded coins. One drawback is that, in proving that the fragment are from honest miners, their protocol requires a trusted online time-stamp server so that the wallets can verify the timestamps to see if the blocks in the fragment is mined with sufficiently large amount of computing resources. Otherwise, it sacrifices usability. In order to eliminate such an online trustee, in this paper we took the opposite approach that the payee (not the wallets) verifies the legitimacy of preloaded coins at the time of offline payment. As a consequence, our result shows that, with light-weight tamper-proof wallets, completely decentralized offline payment is possible without any modification to the existing Bitcoin network.


Blockchain Offline payment Tamper-proof wallet 


  1. 1.
    Dmitrienko, A., Noack, D., Yung, M.: Secure wallet-assisted offline Bitcoin payments with double-spender revocation. In: ASIACCS (2017)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Garay, J., Kiayias, A., Leonardos, N.: The Bitcoin backbone protocol with chains of variable difficulty. In: Katz, J., Shacham, H. (eds.) CRYPTO 2017. LNCS, vol. 10401, pp. 291–323. Springer, Cham (2017). Scholar
  3. 3.
    Garay, J., Kiayias, A., Leonardos, N.: The Bitcoin backbone protocol: analysis and applications. In: Oswald, E., Fischlin, M. (eds.) EUROCRYPT 2015. LNCS, vol. 9057, pp. 281–310. Springer, Heidelberg (2015). Scholar
  4. 4.
    Karame, G.O., Androulaki, E., Capkun, S.: Double-spending fast payments in Bitcoin. In: CCS, pp. 906–917. ACM (2012)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Lind, J., Eyal, I., Pietzuch, P.R., Sirer, E.G.: Teechan: payment channels using trusted execution environments. (2016), Accessed 9 Mar 2017
  6. 6.
    Nakamoto, S.: Bitcoin: a peer-to-peer electronic cash systems, November 2008.
  7. 7.
    Pass, R., Seeman, L., Shelat, A.: Analysis of the blockchain protocol in asynchronous networks. In: Coron, J.-S., Nielsen, J.B. (eds.) EUROCRYPT 2017. LNCS, vol. 10211, pp. 643–673. Springer, Cham (2017). Scholar

Copyright information

© International Financial Cryptography Association 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Information SecurityYokohamaJapan

Personalised recommendations