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Hydrosilyl-Functional Polysiloxanes: Synthesis, Reactions and Applications

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Reactive and Functional Polymers Volume One

Abstract

A comprehensive review on preparation methods of linear, branched, star and dendritic poly(hydrosiloxane)s (PHS), mainly poly(methylhydrosiloxanes) (PMHS) and Si-H functional silsesquioxanes (spherosilicates) is presented in this chapter. The most important applications of PMHS in technology of silicones, modifications of different polymers and in materials science were reviewed.

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Abbreviations

((HMe2SiO)2SiO)3):

Hexakis(dimethylsiloxy)cyclotrisiloxane

((HMe2SiO)2SiO)4:

Octakis(dimethylsiloxy)cyclotetrasiloxane

((HMe2SiO)SiO1.5)8):

Octakis(dimethylsiloxy)octasilsesquioxane - Q8MH8

((Me3SiO)2SiO)4):

Octakis(trimethylsiloxy)cyclotetrasiloxane

(H2SiO)n (n = 4–23):

Oligodihydrocyclosiloxanes

(HMeSiO)5:

1,3,5,7,9-pentamethylcyclopentasiloxane

(Me2PhSi)2O:

1,1,3,3-tetramethyl-1,3-diphenyldisiloxane

(MVi)2SiMeH:

1,5-divinyl-1,1,3,5,5-pentamethyltrisiloxane

(NH4)2SO4:

Ammonium sulphate

3D:

Three dimensional

AB2:

Polymerized methylvinylbis(dimethylsiloxy)silane

AB3-II:

Vinyltris(dimethylsiloxysilane)

AB3-III:

Tris(vinyldimethylsiloxysilane)

AB4:

Methylvinylbis[methylbis(dimethylsiloxy)siloxy]silane

AB6:

Vinyltris(methylbis(dimethylsiloxy)siloxy)silane

APTES:

(3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane

ATRP:

Atom transfer radical polymerization

B(C6F5)3:

Tris(pentafluorophenyl)borane

B(OSiMe2Cl)3:

Tris(chlorodimethylsiloxy)borane

br-PMHBS:

Branched poly(methylhydroborosiloxane)

BTC:

1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylic acid

C5H5N:

Pyridine

CA:

Cellulose acetate

Ca3Si3O9Cl6:

Pseudowollastonite

c-D2DH:

Pentamethylcyclotrisiloxane - (Me2SiO)2(MeHSiO)

ClSiMe2H:

Chlorodimethylsilane

CNF:

Carbon nanofiber

CPA:

Hexachloroplatinic acid - H2PtCl6 - Speier’s catalyst

D3:

Hexamethylcyclotrisiloxane

D4:

Octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane - (Me2SiO)4

D5:

Decamethylcyclopentasiloxane - (Me2SiO)5

DBSA:

Dodecylbenzenesulphonic acid

DBTDL:

Dibutyltin dilaurate

DCP:

Dicumyl peroxide

DDS:

Dimethyldichlorosilane - Me2SiCl2

DH4:

1,3,5,7-tetramethyltetrahydrocyclotetrasiloxane

DH5:

1,3,5,7,9-pentamethyl-1,3,5,7,9-pentahydro-cyclopentasiloxane

DHn:

Methylhydrocyclosiloxanes

DMAP:

4-(N,N-dimethylamino)pyridine

DMCS:

Chlorodimethylsilane - HMe2SiCl

DmDHn:

Cyclic dimethylsiloxane-co-methylhydrosiloxane

DMF:

N,N-dimethylformamide

Dn, n ≥ 3:

Dimethylcyclosiloxanes

DSC:

Differential scanning calorimetry

DVB:

1,4-divinylbenzene

DVi4:

1,3,5,7-tetramethyl-1,3,5,7-tetravinylcycletetrasiloxane - (MeViSiO)4

Et3B:

Triethylborane

Et3N:

Triethylamine

Et3SiH:

Triethylsilane

FR:

Flame retardants

FRs:

Fire retardants

FTIR:

Fourier transform infrared

H2SiCl2:

Dichlorosilane

H2SO4:

Sulfuric acid

HCl:

Hydrochloric acid

HMe2SiC6H4SiMe2H:

1,4-bis(dimethylsilyl)benzene

HMeSi(O(CH2)9CH=CH2)2:

Bis(undecenyloxy)methylsilane

HMM:

Pentamethyldisiloxane - HMe2SiOSiMe3

HNBR:

Hydrogenated butadiene-styrene rubber

HO(Me2SiO)mH:

Oligo(dimethylsiloxane-α,ω-diols)

HSi(OMe)3:

Trimethoxysilane - HSi(OCH3)3

HSiCl3:

Trichlorosilane

INEPTRD:

Insensitive nuclei enhanced by polarisation transfer refocussed and decoupled

INVGATE:

Inverse-gated broadband decoupled technique

IPNs:

Interpenetrating polymer networks

KOH:

Potassium hydroxide

LCEs:

Liquid-crystalline silicone elastomers

LCs:

Liquid crystals

LEDs:

Light-emitting diodes

LiAlH4:

Lithium aluminohydride

LOI:

Limiting oxygen index

LPNC:

[Cl3P(NPCl2)2PCl3]+PCl6

M2:

Hexamethyldisiloxane - Me3SiOSiMe3

MDES:

Methyldiethoxysilane - MeHSi(OEt)2

MDnM:

Permethyloligosiloxanes or permethylpolysiloxanes

MDS:

Methyldichloro(hydro)silane - MeHSiCl2

Me2SiH2:

Dimethylsilane

Me3SiO0.5:

Trimethylsiloxane end group

Me4NOH:

Tetramethylammonium hydroxide

MeSi(OSiMe2H)3:

Methyltris(dimethylsiloxy)silane

MeSiCl3:

Methyltrichlorosilane

MeSiH3:

Methylsilane

MH:

HMe2SiO0.5

MH2:

1,1,3,3-tetramethyldisiloxane - HMe2SiOSiMe2H

MH2Dn:

Linear α,ω-dihydrooligodimethylsiloxanes - HMe2Si(OSiMe2)nOSiHMe2

MMA:

Methyl methacrylate

Mn:

Number-average molecular weight

MTES:

Methyltriethoxysilane - MeSi(OEt)3

m-TMI:

m-isopropenyl-α,α-dimethylbenzylisocyanate

Mw:

Weight-average molecular weight

MW:

Molecular weight

MWD:

Molecular weight distribution

NaHB(s-Bu)3:

Sodium tri(s-butyl)borohydride

NaHBEt3:

Sodium triethylborohydride

NaN3:

Sodium azide

NaOH:

Sodium hydroxide

n-BA:

n-butyl acrylate

n-BuLi:

n-butyllithium

NCs:

Nanocomposites

NHC:

N-heterocyclic carbenes

NMR:

Nuclear magnetic resonance

NPs:

Nanoparticles

PB:

Poly(butadiene)

Pd(OAc)2:

Palladium(II) acetate

Pd2(dba)3:

Tris(dibenzylideneacetone)dipalladium(0)

PD5:

Poly(pentmethylcyclopentasiloxane)

PDI:

Polydispersity

PDMS:

Poly(dimethylsiloxane)

PDMS-X2:

α,ω-bis(γ-hydroxypropyl)polydimethylsiloxanes

PE:

Poly(ethylene)

PEG:

Poly(ethylene glycol)

PEO:

Poly(ethylene oxide)

Ph2Si(OH)2:

Diphenylsilanediol

PhMe2SiH:

Phenyldimethylsilane

PhMeSiH2:

Methylphenylsilane

phr:

Parts per hundred (by weight)

PHS:

Poly(hydrosiloxane)

PhSi(OEt)3:

Phenyltriethoxysilane

PhSi(OMe)3:

Phenyltrimethoxysilane

PhSiCl3:

Phenyltrichlorosilane

PhSiH3:

Phenylsilane

PHSSQ:

Poly(hydrosilsesquioxane)

PLA:

Poly(lactic acid)

PMDI:

Poly(diphenylmethane 4,4′-diisocyanate)

PMHBS:

Poly(methylhydroborosiloxane)

PMHOS:

Polymethylhydroxysiloxane

PMHS:

Poly(methylhydrosiloxane)

PMHS-T:

Branched PMHSs

PMVS:

Poly(methylvinylsiloxane)s

POM:

Polarizing optical microscopy

POSS:

Poly(silsesquioxane)

PPO:

Poly(propylene oxide)

PSCS:

Poly(siloxysilane) poly(carbosiloxane)

PSt:

Poly(styrene)

Pt2[(ViSiMe2)2O]3:

Pt2(sym-tetramethyldivinyldisiloxane)3 - Karstedt’s catalyst

PU:

Poly(urethane)

PVA:

Poly(vinyl alcohol)

Q8MH8:

1,3,5,7,9,11,13,15-octakis(dimethylsiloxy)pentacyclo-[9.5.1.13,9.15,15.17,13]octasiloxane - (HMe2SiO)SiO1.5)8

RhCl(PPh3)3:

Wilkinson’s catalyst

ROP:

Ring-opening polymerization

RT:

Room temperature

SBR:

Styrene-butadiene rubber

scCO2:

Supercritical carbon dioxide

SFs:

Silicone foams

Si((OSiMe2)nOSiMe2H)4):

Tetraarm star H-terminated polydimethylsiloxanes

Si(OSiMe2H)4:

Tetrakis(dimethylsiloxy)silane

SiOC:

Silicon oxycarbide

SRs:

Silicone rubbers

St:

Styrene

TEA:

Triethylamine

TEMPO:

2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl

TEOS:

Tetraethoxysilane - Si(OC2H5)4 - Si(OEt)4

TES:

Triethoxysilane - HSi(OC2H5)3 - HSi(OEt)3

TFA:

Trifluoromethanesulfonic acid - triflic acid - CF3SO3H

Tg:

Glass transition temperature

TGA:

Thermogravimetric analysis

TH:

Hydrosilsesquioxane unit - HSiO1.5

TH8:

Octahydrooctasilsesquioxane - (HSiO1.5)8 - H8Si8O12

THF:

Tetrahydrofuran

Ti:

Isotropic transition temperatures

Tm:

Melting temperature

TMCS:

Trimethylchlorosilane - Me3SiCl

TMOS:

Tetramethoxysilane - Si(OMe)4

TMSD:

Tetramethyldisiloxane-1,3-diol

ViSi(OEt)3:

Vinyltriethoxysilane

VMDMS:

Vinylmethyldimethoxysilane

δ:

Chemical shifts

References