Evolution of the Black Physician: Medical Education and Treatment Facilities for Blacks



Following the end of the Civil War and the beginning of emancipation (1863–1865), blacks were cast into a situation of having to be responsible for providing their own medical care. Freedom from bondage meant that they no longer could depend on their former slave masters to care for them when they were ill or injured, and they had little or no money to go to white hospitals or physicians, even if they had been accepted for treatment. In this chapter, the remarkable efforts that were made by blacks to survive in the aftermath of a war which was fought to determine the destiny of millions of blacks who were caught in between two factions of whites will be reviewed. It includes a description of how blacks attempted and succeeded in creating their own system of healthcare “against the odds,” as stated by Wilbur H. Watson in his excellent book of the same name.


Reconstruction 14th Amendment Jim Crow Flexner Report Racism Separate but equal Supreme Court of the United States Dred Scott decision Plessey v Ferguson Brown v Board of Education Due process Inalienable rights Bill of Rights Health equity Desegregation Hill-Burton Act Voting Rights Act Civil Rights Act Medicare Medicaid 


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.EncinoUSA

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