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The Kingdom of Urartu in North-Western Iran (Ninth–Seventh Century B.C.E)

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Archaeology of Iran in the Historical Period

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Abstract

Between the ninth and the seventh century B.C.E large regions of north-western Iran were part of the kingdom of Urartu. From their capital Tushpa on lake Van the kings of Urartu ruled over a large territory that reached from the Euphrates to Aras river, to Mahabad, Tabriz, Ahar and Ardebil in Iran The rich agricultural areas north and west of lake Urmia were the favourite territories of Urartu. There they constructed more than one hundred large and small fortresses to protect their areas and population against enemy attack. For centuries Urartu was engaged in bitter conflicts with Assyria and the rulers of Mannaea, a kingdom south of lake Urmia. In the middle of the seventh century B.C.E the major Urartian sites in Iran, Armenia and Anatolia suffered a wave of fatal destruction. Urartu fell into oblivion.

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Correspondence to Ernst Stephan Kroll .

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Abbreviations

CTU A: Salvini M., 2008, Corpus dei Testi Urartei, Vol. I, Le iscrizioni su pietra e roccia. I testi (Documenta Asiana VIII/I. Roma).

CTU B: Salvini M., 2012, Corpus dei Testi Urartei, Vol. IV, Iscrizioni Su Bronzi, Argilla Altri Supporti Nuove Iscrizioni Su Pietra Paleografia Generale (Documenta Asiana VIII/IV, Roma).

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Kroll, E.S. (2020). The Kingdom of Urartu in North-Western Iran (Ninth–Seventh Century B.C.E). In: Niknami, KA., Hozhabri, A. (eds) Archaeology of Iran in the Historical Period. University of Tehran Science and Humanities Series. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-41776-5_2

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-41776-5_2

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