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The First Wave: The Oil Crisis and the New Nationalists

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Abstract

This chapter examines the first wave of nativist populism in the post-war era, which emerged in opposition to over-taxation and multiculturalism in wake of the OPEC Crisis in the 1970s—bringing forth the National Front France and the Progress Parties in Scandinavia. The chapter furthermore explores the foundations of the post-war liberal democratic order, which nativist populists have been contesting.

The first wave arose more on anti-tax and neo-liberal notions, rather than being based on hardcore nationalism. At first sight this might seem a bit paradoxical as initially most populists of the first wave were positioned much further out on the fringe in politics than those finding support in the third wave. However, although many of them resorted to rogue demagoguery, their aim was initially mainly against big government and the corrupt domestic political elite.

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Notes

  1. 1.

    The two-round electoral system in France insures a majority behind the President. If no candidate passes the 50 per cent mark in the first round, a second vote is held between the two frontrunners.

  2. 2.

    See the Daily Telegraph. 2007, 6 November. ‘Enoch Powell’s Rivers of Blood speech’.

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Bergmann, E. (2020). The First Wave: The Oil Crisis and the New Nationalists. In: Neo-Nationalism. Palgrave Macmillan, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-41773-4_3

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