Thrust Sheets, Tectonic Windows, and Intermontane Basins in the Nepal Himalaya

Part of the Society of Earth Scientists Series book series (SESS)


The Himalayan Range is generally classified into a number of broad longitudinal tectonic belts. Despite a long history of investigation, some fundamental issues of their stratigraphy and structure are still unresolved. Especially, there has been considerable controversy over delineating the Greater Himalayan and Lesser Himalayan belts of Nepal. The Greater Himalayan thrust sheet represents the hanging wall of the Main Central Thrust. In Nepal, the thrust sheet forms two large open folds: the Great Midland Antiform in the inner zone and the Great Mahabharat Synform in the outer part. The Main Himalayan Thrust and Main Central Thrust constitute respectively the floor and roof of a mega duplex where some detached Lesser Himalayan horses are exposed in various tectonic windows. The Main Himalayan Thrust plays a role of sole thrust in the imbricate stack developed within the foreland fold-and-thrust belt. The key structural and stratigraphic aspects of thrust sheets, tectonic windows, klippen, and intermontane basins are discussed together with the neotectonic activity in the Nepal Himalaya.


Nepal himalaya Tectonic window Thrust sheet Mega duplex Active fault Thakkhola graben 



We thank Tribhuvan University and the Department of Mines and Geology, the Government of Nepal, for their support and laboratory facilities.


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of GeologyTri-Chandra Campus, Tribhuvan UniversityKirtipurNepal
  2. 2.Institute for Disaster Management and ReconstructionSichuan University-Hong Kong Polytechnic UniversityChengduChina
  3. 3.Department of Civil EngineeringInstitute of Engineering, Tribhuvan UniversityLalitpurNepal

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