Advertisement

British South Asian Transnational Marriage

Chapter
  • 133 Downloads
Part of the Palgrave Macmillan Studies in Family and Intimate Life book series (PSFL)

Abstract

In this chapter we look at patterns and trends transnational marriage among British Pakistani Muslims and British Indian Sikhs, explore attitudes towards transnational marriage and look at how participants own marriages came about. Labour Force Survey data shows a clear downward trend in the popularity of transnational marriage. They also show transnational marriage is less common among those with higher education. We explore the possibility that the opportunity for migration might be ‘exchanged’ for educational capital so that transnational marriage could provide British South Asians access to more educated partners in India or Pakistan. The LFS figures show that educational homogamy (spouses having the same level of education) is the dominant pattern in both transnational and intranational marriages. We nevertheless find evidence of educational selectivity in transnational marriages, with migrant spouses’ educational profiles comparing very favourably to those in the origin countries. The qualitative data from the MMI study shows that educational similarity constitutes just one aspect of understandings of compatibility which make transnational marriage attractive for some, and undesirable for others. Family considerations, such as care for parents as they age, and for British Pakistanis the possibility of marriage between cousins, also appear in these accounts, alongside the opportunities to meet marriage partners presented by the transnational social field.

References

  1. Abdul-Rida, C., & Baykara-Krumme, H. (2016). Staying in Turkey or marrying to Europe? Understanding transnational marriages from the country-of-origin perspective. European Sociological Review, 32(6), 702–715.Google Scholar
  2. Bagguley, P., & Hussain, Y. (2016). Negotiating mobility: South Asian women and higher education. Sociology, 50(1), 43–59.Google Scholar
  3. Ballard, R. (1987). The political economy of migration: Pakistan, Britain and the Middle East. In J. Eades (Ed.), Migrants, workers and the social order (pp. 17–41). London: Tavistock.Google Scholar
  4. Barro, R. J., & Lee, J. W. (2010). A new data set of educational attainment in the world, 1950–2010 (NBER Working Paper No. 15902). National Bureau of Economic Research.Google Scholar
  5. Baykara-Krumme, H. (2016). Consanguineous marriage in Turkish families in Turkey and in Western Europe. International Migration Review, 50(3), 568–598.Google Scholar
  6. Baykara-Krumme, H., & Fuß, D. (2009). Heiratsmigration nach Deutschland: determinanten der transnationalen Partnerwahl türkeistämmiger migranten. Zeitschrift Für Bevölkerungswissenschaft, 34, 135–164.Google Scholar
  7. Beck-Gernsheim, E. (2011). The marriage route to migration: Of border artistes, transnational matchmaking and imported spouses. Nordic Journal of Migration Studies, 1(2), 60–68.Google Scholar
  8. Blossfeld, H. P. (2009). Educational assortative marriage in comparative perspective. Annual Review of Sociology, 35, 513–530.Google Scholar
  9. Bonjour, S., & Kraler, A. (2015). Family migration as an integration issue? Policy perspectives and academic insights. Journal of Family Issues, 36(11), 1407–1432.Google Scholar
  10. Carol, S., Ersanilli, E., & Wagner, M. (2014). Spousal choice among the children of Turkish and Moroccan immigrants in six European countries: Transnational spouse or co-ethnic migrant? International Migration Review, 48(2), 387–414.Google Scholar
  11. Casier, M., Heyse, P., Clycq, N., Zemni, S., & Timmerman, C. (2013). Breaking the in-group out-group: Shifting boundaries in transnational partner choice processes of individuals of Moroccan, Tunisian, Algerian, Turkish, Punjabi Sikh, Pakistani and Albanian descent in Belgium. The Sociological Review, 61(3), 460–478.Google Scholar
  12. Çelikaksoy, A., Nielsen, H. S., & Verner, M. (2006). Marriage migration: Just another case of positive assortative matching? Review of Economics of the Household, 4(3), 253–275.Google Scholar
  13. Charsley, K. (2007). Risk, trust, gender and transnational cousin marriage among British Pakistanis. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 30(6), 1117–1131.Google Scholar
  14. Charsley, K. (2012). Transnational marriage: New perspectives from Europe and beyond. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  15. Charsley, K. (2013). Transnational Pakistani connections: Marrying ‘back home’. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  16. Charsley, K., & Bolognani, M. (2017). Being a freshie is (not) cool: Stigma, capital and disgust in British Pakistani stereotypes of new subcontinental migrants. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 40(1), 43–62.Google Scholar
  17. Charsley, K., & Bolognani, M. (2019). Marrying ‘in’/marrying ‘out’? Blurred boundaries in British Pakistani marriage choices. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 1–18.  https://doi.org/10.1080/1369183X.2019.1625131.
  18. Charsley, K., & Liversage, A. (2013). Transforming polygamy: Migration, transnationalism and multiple marriages among Muslim minorities. Global Networks, 13(1), 60–78.Google Scholar
  19. Charsley, K., & Shaw, A. (2006). South Asian transnational marriages in comparative perspective. Global Networks, 6(4), 331–344.Google Scholar
  20. Constable, N. (2005). Cross-border marriage: Gender and mobility in transnational Asia. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.Google Scholar
  21. Dale, A., & Ahmed, S. (2011). Marriage and employment patterns among UK-raised Indian, Pakistani and Bangladeshi women. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 34(6), 902–924.Google Scholar
  22. Eggebø, H., & Brekke, J. P. (2018). Family migration and integration: A literature review. Nordland Research Institute. http://www.nordlandsforskning.no/publikasjoner/family-migration-and-integration-a-literature-review-article5504-152.html. Accessed 5 July 2019.
  23. Ersanilli, E., & Charsley, K. (2019). A Good Match? Education, Labour Market Position, and British South Asian Transnational Marriage. European Sociological Review, 35(1), 133–146.Google Scholar
  24. Georgiadis, A., & Manning, A. (2011). Change and continuity among minority communities in Britain. Journal of Population Economics, 24(2), 541–568.Google Scholar
  25. Gonzalez-Ferrer, A. (2006). Who do immigrants marry? Partner choice among single immigrants in Germany. European Sociological Review, 22(2), 171–185.Google Scholar
  26. Gullickson, A., & Torche, F. (2014). Patterns of racial and educational assortative mating in Brazil. Demography, 51(3), 835–856.Google Scholar
  27. Hamel, C., Huschek, D., Milewsky, N., & Valk, H. A. G. (2012). Union formation and partner choice. In M. Crul, J. Schneider, & F. Lelie (Eds.), The European second generation compared: does the integration context matter? (pp. 225–284). Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.Google Scholar
  28. Hester, M., Chantler, K., Gangoli, G., Ahmed, B., Burman, E., McCarry, M., et al. (2006). Forced marriage: The risk factors and the effect of raising the minimum age for a sponsor, and of leave to enter the UK as a spouse or fiancé (e) (Phase 1 Report to Home Office). http://www.bristol.ac.uk/media-library/sites/sps/migrated/documents/rk6612finalreport.pdf. Accessed 25 July 2019.
  29. Home Office. (2011). Family migration: Evidence and analysis (Occasional Paper 94: 2nd ed.). London: Home Office. https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/306889/occ94.pdf. Accessed 24 July 2019.
  30. Huschek, D., de Valk, H. A., & Liefbroer, A. C. (2012). Partner choice patterns among the descendants of Turkish immigrants in Europe. European Journal of Population/Revue Européenne de Démographie, 28(3), 241–268.Google Scholar
  31. Jørgensen, M. B. (2012). Danish regulations on marriage migration: Policy understandings of transnational marriage. In K. Charsley (Ed.), Transnational marriage: New perspectives from Europe and beyond. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  32. Kalmijn, M. (1998). Intermarriage and homogamy: Causes, patterns, trends. Annual Review of Sociology, 24(1), 395–421.Google Scholar
  33. Kalmijn, M. (2010). Educational inequality, homogamy, and status exchange in black-white intermarriage: A comment on Rosenfeld. American Journal of Sociology, 115(4), 1252–1263.Google Scholar
  34. Kofman, E., Saharso, S., & Vacchelli, E. (2015). Gendered perspectives on integration discourses and measures. International Migration, 53(4), 77–89.Google Scholar
  35. Kulu-Glasgow, I., & Leerkes, A. (2011). Playing hard (er) to get: The state, international couples, and the income requirement. European Journal of Migration and Law, 13(1), 95–121.Google Scholar
  36. Levitt, P., & Glick Schiller, N. (2004). Conceptualizing simultaneity: A transnational social field perspective on society. The International Migration Review, 38(3), 1002–1039.Google Scholar
  37. Lievens, J. (1999). Family-forming migration from Turkey and Morocco to Belgium: The demand for marriage partners from the countries of origin. International Migration Review, 33(3), 717–744.Google Scholar
  38. Liversage, A., & Rytter, M. (2015). A cousin marriage equals a forced marriage: Regulations, discourses and strategies of transnational consanguineous marriages in Denmark. In A. Shaw & A. E. Raz, Cousin marriages: Between tradition, genetic risk and cultural change (pp. 130–153). Oxford and New York: Berghahn Books.Google Scholar
  39. Lüken-Klaßen, D., & Heckmann, F. (2013). The impacts of restrictions and entitlements on the integration of family migrants: National Report Germany. https://www.compas.ox.ac.uk/wp-content/uploads/PR-2013-IMPACIM_National_Germany.pdf. Accessed 25 July 2019.
  40. Mand, K. (2002). Place, gender and power in transnational Sikh marriages. Global Networks, 2(3), 233–248.Google Scholar
  41. Muttarak, R. (2010). Explaining trends and patterns of immigrants’ partner choice in Britain. ZfF–Zeitschrift für Familienforschung/Journal of Family Research, 22(1), 37–64.Google Scholar
  42. Niedomysl, T., Östh, J., & Van Ham, M. (2010). The globalisation of marriage fields: The Swedish case. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 36(7), 1119–1138.Google Scholar
  43. Qureshi, K. (2015). Beyond code-switching: young Punjabi Sikhs in Britain. In K. Jacobsen & K. Myrvold (Eds.), Young Sikhs in a global world. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  44. Qureshi, K. (2016). Marital breakdown among British Asians. London: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  45. Qureshi, K., Charsley, K., & Shaw, A. (2014). Marital instability among British Pakistanis: Transnationality, conjugalities and Islam. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 37(2), 261–279.Google Scholar
  46. Rait, S. K. (2005). Sikh women in England. Stoke-on-Trent: Trentham Books.Google Scholar
  47. Rytter, M. (2012). Between preferences: Marriage and mobility among Danish Pakistani youth. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, 18(3), 572–590.Google Scholar
  48. Sachdeva, S. (1993). The primary purpose rule in British immigration law. London: Trentham Books.Google Scholar
  49. Schmidt, G. (2011). The Powerful Map of Transnational Families. Nordic Journal of Migration Research, 1(2), 80–87.Google Scholar
  50. Shaw, A. (2001). Kinship, cultural preference and immigration: Consanguineous marriage among British Pakistanis. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, 7(2), 315–334.Google Scholar
  51. Sterckx, L. (2015). Marrying ‘in’ or ‘out’: Scrutinizing the link between integration and the partner choice of young people of Turkish and Moroccan origin in the Netherlands. Journal of Family Issues, 36(11), 1550–1570.Google Scholar
  52. Straßburger, G. (2003). Heiratsverhalten und Partnerwahl im Einwanderungskontext: Eheschließungen der zweiten Migrantengeneration türkischer Herkunft. Würzburg: Ergon-Verlag.Google Scholar
  53. The Migration Observatory. (2014). Love and money: How immigration policy discriminates between families. https://migrationobservatory.ox.ac.uk/resources/commentaries/love-and-money-how-immigration-policy-discriminates-between-families/. Accessed 25 July 2019.
  54. Timmerman, C. (2006). Gender dynamics in the context of Turkish marriage migration: The case of Belgium. Turkish Studies, 7(1), 125–143.Google Scholar
  55. Wray, H. (2011). Regulating marriage migration into the UK: A stranger in the home. Farnham: Ashgate.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Sociology, Politics and International StudiesUniversity of BristolBristolUK
  2. 2.BristolUK
  3. 3.Department of Political ScienceUniversity of AmsterdamAmsterdamThe Netherlands
  4. 4.Centre on Migration, Policy and SocietyUniversity of OxfordOxfordUK

Personalised recommendations