A Novel Image Steganography Using Multiple LSB Substitution and Pixel Randomization Using Stern-Brocot Sequence

Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing book series (AISC, volume 1129)


Steganography is a technology of hiding confidential information within regularly used data files such as image, audio, video files. There have been several research works on the image steganography. Most of the works used only single LSB or multiple LSB of RGB components of each pixel. However, using only one LSB of the color components is an obstacle to convey much information. Again, if the pixels are not selected randomly, then the pixels used in steganography can be predicted very easily, thereby exposing the hidden information. In this paper, we have proposed a novel approach to inject information into an image in such a way that it is very difficult (almost impossible) for others (except sender and receiver) to detect and extract the hidden information within an image. We have encrypted our secret message before embedding it within an image. Pixels of the image have been selected in a randomized way using Stern-Brocot Sequence. Multiple LSBs of colors components (RGB) are used while inserting the encrypted message into the randomly selected pixels. We have implemented our proposed algorithm and showed our experimental results on the basis of PSNR and MSE for the stego images. Our results show that the quality of the images changes with different size of our secret messages and the quality of the stego image does not change significantly after applying our proposed algorithm. We have successfully extracted our secret messages from the stego images at the receiver side. Our proposed algorithm of image steganography can be useful for establishing a secret communication over a public communication using that public communication. As our proposed algorithm provides two step protection layer, it is quite impossible to extract the actual secret message from the image.


Steganography Stern-Brocot sequence Stego image LSB method PSNR MSE 



This research was supported by SciTech Consulting and Solutions, Dhaka, Bangladesh.


  1. 1.
    Sugathan, S.: An improved LSB embedding technique for image steganography. In: 2nd International Conference on Applied and Theoretical Computing and Communication Technology (iCATccT), pp. 609–612. IEEE (2016)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Arora, A., Singh, M.P., Thakral, P., Jarwal, N.: Image steganography using enhanced LSB substitution technique. In: Fourth International Conference on Parallel, Distributed and Grid Computing (PDGC), pp. 386–389. IEEE (2016)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bhardwaj, R., Sharma, V.: Image steganography based on complemented message and inverted bit LSB substitution. Proc. Comput. Sci. 93, 832–838 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Jiang, W., Guo, Z., Wang, K., Huang, Y.: A self-contained steganography combining LSB substitution with MSB matching. In: 5th International Conference on Computer Science and Network Technology (ICCSNT), pp. 635–640. IEEE (2016)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Akhtar, N., Ahamad, V., Javed, H.: A compressed LSB steganography method. In: 3rd International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Communication Technology (CICT), pp. 1–7. IEEE (2017)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Patel, R.M., Shah, D.: Multiple LSB data hiding based on pixel value and MSB value. In: Nirma University International Conference on Engineering (NUiCONE), pp. 1–5. IEEE (2013)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Laskar, S.A., Hemachandran, K.: Steganography based on random pixel selection for efficient data hiding. Int. J. Comput. Eng. Technol. 4(2), 31–44 (2013)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Zhou, X., Gong, W., Fu, W., Jin, L.: An improved method for LSB based color image steganography combined with cryptography. In: IEEE/ACIS 15th International Conference on Computer and Information Science (ICIS), pp. 1–4. IEEE (2016)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Liao, X., Yin, J., Guo, S., Li, X., Sangaiah, A.K.: Medical JPEG image steganography based on preserving inter-block dependencies. Comput. Electr. Eng. 67, 320–329 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Rahim, R., Nurdiyanto, H., Hidayat, R., Ahmar, A.S., Siregar, D., Siahaan, A.P.U., Faisal, I., Rahman, S., Suita, D., Zamsuri, A., et al.: Combination base64 algorithm and EOF technique for steganography. J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 1007(1), 012003 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Sheidaee, A., Farzinvash, L.: A novel image steganography method based on DCT and LSB. In: 9th International Conference on Information and Knowledge Technology (IKT), pp. 116–123. IEEE (2017)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Arun, C., Murugan, S.: Design of image steganography using LSB XOR substitution method. In: International Conference on Communication and Signal Processing (ICCSP), pp. 0674–0677. IEEE (2017)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Surse, N.M., Vinayakray-Jani, P.: A comparative study on recent image steganography techniques based on DWT. In: International Conference on Wireless Communications, Signal Processing and Networking (WiSPNET), pp. 1308–1314. IEEE (2017)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Yadav, P., Dutta, M.: 3-Level security based spread spectrum image steganography with enhanced peak signal to noise ratio. In: Fourth International Conference on Image Information Processing (ICIIP), pp. 1–5. IEEE (2017)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Jain, T., Shrotriya, A., Verma, V.K., Kumar, H.: Mask encryption based highly secure image steganography. In: International Conference on Intelligent Communication and Computational Techniques (ICCT), pp. 256–261. IEEE (2017)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Trivedi, M.C., Sharma, S., Yadav, V.K.: Analysis of several image steganography techniques in spatial domain: a survey. In: Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Information and Communication Technology for Competitive Strategies, p. 84. ACM (2016)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Subhedar, M.S., Mankar, V.H.: Current status and key issues in image steganography: a survey. Comput. Sci. Rev. 13, 95–113 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Swain, G.: Digital image steganography using variable length group of bits substitution. Proc. Comput. Sci. 85, 31–38 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Aljamea, M.M., Iliopoulos, C.S., Samiruzzaman, M.: Detection Of URL in image steganography. In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Internet of things and Cloud Computing, p. 23. ACM (2016)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of CSEBangladesh University Of Engineering and TechnologyDhakaBangladesh
  2. 2.Research scientistBioNanoTechLondonUK

Personalised recommendations