Contemporary Approaches to Natural Disaster Risk Management in Geotechnics
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Geodynamic natural phenomena, such as landslides and earthquakes, are among the most hazardous natural threats to human lives and property. Usual landslide triggers are floods and heavy rainfall, in which case speed of onset is mostly rapid and damage to structures and systems can be severe (buildings may be buried or villages swept away). In addition, transportation networks, with embankment and cutting slopes, retaining structures, bridges, and tunnels as their integral parts, are considered to be of paramount importance when the risk under strong earthquakes is considered, since accessibility of roads affects the speed and the scope of the emergency measures to be provided in the very immediate post-earthquake emergency and relief operations, and since the earthquake-induced damages to the infrastructures could severely affect the economy of a region due to the time required to restore the functionality of the network. Prevention measures and activities are the best mean of protection of human lives and social goods. Natural disaster prevention arrangements are of long-term character with permanent governmental and professional activity for the needs of establishment of consistent scientific bases and their practical application in prevention and mitigation of disaster risk. In this respect, the contemporary tools in prevention of landslide occurrence, as well as in reduction of seismic risk for foundation structures and, in particular, for tunnel structures as crucial elements in transportation network, are presented in this chapter, with a special emphasis on the state-of-the-art hazard analysis, geotechnical and construction strategies of prevention and mitigation of adverse natural hazard effects, as well as on development of monitoring and early-warning systems.
KeywordsLandslides Earthquakes Foundations Tunnels Risk management Hazard analysis Prevention Mitigation Early-warning system
The authors gratefully acknowledge the support of the Erasmus+ Project “Development of master curricula for natural disasters risk management in Western Balkan countries—NatRisk” 573806-EPP-1-2016-1-RS-EPPKA2-CBHE-JP (2016–2019), and the support of the Ministry of Education, Science, and Technological Development of the Republic of Serbia in the frame of the scientific–research project “Development and improvement of methods for analysis of the soil–structure interaction based on theoretical and experimental research” TR36028 (2011–2019).
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