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Products produce negative ecological impacts, such as pollution on the environment, harmful gas emission, and negative impacts on eco-systems and human health. The ecological impact of a product can be measured with a numerical value called eco-point (EU H2020 CIRC4Life Project 2018), eco-score or eco-cost (von Geibler 2014). In this book, the ‘eco-point’ is used as a reference of the ecological impact values of products. In addition to the ‘eco-point’, the eco-point approach presented in this chapter also includes ‘eco-debit’ to show the customer’s negative ecological impact resulted from the products purchased, ‘eco-credit’ to credit customers’ positive behaviour of recycling end-of-life products, ‘eco-shopping’ for consumers to gain the ecological information of the products to be purchased, and ‘consumer eco-account’ to record consumers’ ecological footprints. The eco-accounting (or ‘ecological accounting’) infrastructure presented in this chapter includes the eco-point approach and the implementation of the eco-points, eco-debits and eco-credits, and their applications in sustainable production, eco-shopping, recycle/reuse and consumer eco-accounts. In this chapter, the eco-point approach is presented first, followed by the presentation of eco-accounting framework. To implement the eco-accounting framework requires large amount of dynamic data processing and management, and various information technologies, which are further presented in Chap. 6.
KeywordsEco-point Eco-credit Eco-debit Eco-account Ecological impact Life cycle assessment Life cycle impact assessment Ecological impact
The authors acknowledge the financial supports received from European Commission for the FP7 myEcoCost project (grant number 308530), which provided the basis for the development of the eco-point approach and the eco-accounting framework, and the H2020 CIRC4Life project (grant agreement number 776503) for refinement and application of the approach and framework.
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