Environmental Impact Assessment of Farming with Combined Methods of Life Cycle Assessment and Farm Carbon Calculator

  • Daizhong SuEmail author
  • Jonathan Smith
  • You Wu
  • Zhongming Ren


Nowadays, farming is one of the major sources of environmental impacts in the world. This research developed an approach of combining the life cycle assessment (LCA) and Farm Carbon Calculator (FCC) to assess the environmental impact of farming. The LCA is a general method covering a broad spectrum of environmental impact assessment and the FCC is a farming specific method focusing on carbon emission and sequestration. The approach is applied in an organic vegetable farm as an application scenario. In this chapter, the scope of the investigation is presented first, followed by assessing the environmental impact of farming by utilizing the LCA and FCC methods respectively. The assessments were conducted regarding key aspects of farming, including fuel/energy consumption, fertility improvement, materials, distribution, and waste/disposals. According to the assessment results, suggestions for reducing the environmental impact of farming are proposed. The outcome of the investigation proved the correctness and the compensative advantages of the approach.


Life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) Carbon Greenhouse gas emissions Organic farming Environmental impact calculation Vegetable farm 



Farm Carbon Calculator


Greenhouse Gases


Life Cycle Assessment


Life Cycle Impact Assessment


Life Cycle Inventory


Scilly Organics


Soil Organic Matter



The authors acknowledge the financial supports received from the European Commission’s FP7 Environment programme for myEcoCost project (Grant number 308530) and H2020 Circular Economy program for CIRC4Life project (Grant agreement number 776503). The authors thank Dr Giuseppe Salvia, former research fellow working at the Advanced Design and Manufacturing Engineering Centre of Nottingham Trent University, for his contribution to the research reported in this article.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Daizhong Su
    • 1
    Email author
  • Jonathan Smith
    • 2
  • You Wu
    • 1
  • Zhongming Ren
    • 3
    • 4
  1. 1.Advanced Design and Manufacturing Engineering Centre, Nottingham Trent UniversityNottinghamUK
  2. 2.Jonathan Smith ConsultingGlasgowUK
  3. 3.School of Art and DesignShanghai University of Engineering ScienceShanghaiChina
  4. 4.Shanghai Institute of Design and InnovationTongji UniversityShanghaiChina

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