Advertisement

The Bottled Water

Chapter
  • 374 Downloads
Part of the SpringerBriefs in Molecular Science book series (BRIEFSMOLECULAR)

Abstract

The global bottled water market size is expected to reach around USD 350 billion by 2021, following 10% year-on-year growth. The bottled water market is strictly regulated in the United States of America and the European Union. It offers a range of products, including well water, purified water, mineral water, spring water and functional water. Mineral water’s ‘special’ mineral composition might have the properties favourable to health. The leading reason for the explosion in bottled water consumption is people’s perception of bottled water as purer and healthier. Furthermore, the bottled water consumption is related to economic, social and demographic factors which might influence attitudes towards bottled water.

Keywords

Bottled water Code of Federal Regulations Drinking water European Union Natural mineral waters Spring water Total dissolved solid 

Abbreviations

AWWA-RF

American Water Works Association Research Foundation

AFDO

Association of Food and Drug Officials

CFR

Code of Federal Regulations

CGMP

Current Good Manufacturing Practice

EPA

Environmental Protection Agency

EFSA

European Food Safety Authority

EU

European Union

FFDCA

Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act

FAO

Food and Agricultural Organization

FDA

Food and Drug Administration

HACCP

Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points

IFEN

Institut Francais de L’Environnement

IBWA

International Bottled Water Association

LDL

Low-density lipoprotein

NIAS

Non-Intentionally Added Substance

PIA

Purified isophthalic acid

TDS

Total dissolved solid

U.S.

United States of America

USD

United States Dollar

WHO

World Health Organization

References

  1. Abrahams N, Hubbell B, Jordan J (2000) Joint production and averting expenditure measures of willingness to pay: do water expenditures really measure avoidance costs? Am J Agric Econ 82(2):427–437.  https://doi.org/10.1111/0002-9092.00036CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anadu EC, Harding AK (2000) Risk perception and bottled water use. J Amer Water Works Assoc 92(11):82–92.  https://doi.org/10.1002/j.1551-8833.2000.tb09051.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aptel I, Cance-Rouzaud A, Grandjean H (1999) Association between calcium ingested from drinking water and femoral bone density in elderly women: evidence from the EPIDOS cohort. J Bone Miner Res 14(5):829–833.  https://doi.org/10.1359/jbmr.1999.14.5.829CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Arnold E, Larsen J (2006) Bottled water: pouring resources down the drain. Earth Policy Institute, Rutgers University, New Brunswick. http://www.earth-policy.org/plan_b_updates/2006/update51. Accessed 20 Nov 2019
  5. Bertoni M, Olivieri F, Manghetti M, Boccolini E, Bellomini MG, Blandizzi C, Bonino F, Del Tacca M (2002) Effects of a bicarbonate-alkaline mineral water on gastric functions and functional dyspepsia: a preclinical and clinical study. Pharmacol Res 46(6):525–531.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1043661802002323CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Beverage Marketing (2009) Smaller categories still saw growth as the U.S. liquid refreshment beverage market shrank by 2.0% in 2008. Beverage Marketing, New York, 31 August 2009Google Scholar
  7. Bortolotti M, Turba E, Mari C, Lopilato C, Porrazzo G, Scalabrino A, Miglioli M (1999) Changes caused by mineral water on gastrointestinal motility in patients with chronic idiopathic dyspepsia. Minerva Med 90(5–6):187–194PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Burckhardt P (2008) The effect of the alkali load of mineral water on bone metabolism: interventional studies. J Nutr 138(2):435S–437S.  https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/138.2.435SCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Chaban AG, Lysiuk AD, Chernobrovyi VN, Kuchuk AP (1990) The therapeutic efficacy of a sodium chloride mineral water in chronic gastritis patients with secretory insufficiency. Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult 5:17–19Google Scholar
  10. Codex Alimentarius Commission (1985a) CODEX STAN 108-1981. Codex standard for natural mineral waters. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and World Health Organization (WHO), Rome. http://www.fao.org/input/download/standards/223/CXS_108e.pdf. Accessed 20 Nov 2019
  11. Codex Alimentarius Commission (1985b) CAC/RCP 33-1985—Codex Alimentarius. Code of hygienic practice for collecting, processing and marketing of natural mineral waters. Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Programme, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and World Health Organization (WHO), RomeGoogle Scholar
  12. Codex Alimentarius Commission (1985c) CODEX STAN 1-1985. General standard for the labelling of prepackaged foods. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and World Health Organization (WHO), Rome. http://www.fao.org/3/Y2770E/y2770e02.htm. Accessed 20 Nov 2019
  13. Commission of the European Communities (1998) Commission Directive 98/38/EC of 3 June 1998 adapting to technical progress Council Directive 74/151/EEC on certain components and characteristics of wheeled agricultural or forestry tractors. Off J Eur Comm L170:13–14Google Scholar
  14. Cuomo R, Grasso R, Sarnelli G, Capuano G, Nicolai E, Nardoni G, Pomponi D, Budillon G, Ierardi E (2002) Effects of carbonated water on functional dyspepsia and constipation. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 14(9):991–999CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cury JA, Ricomini-Filho AP, Berti FLP, Tabchoury CP (2019) Systemic effects (risks) of water fluoridation. Braz Dent J 30(5):421–428.  https://doi.org/10.1590/0103-6440201903124CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. de França Doria M (2009) Factors influencing public perception of drinking water quality. Water Policy 12(1):1–19.  https://doi.org/10.2166/wp.2009.051CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Den Besten P, Li W (2011) Chronic fluoride toxicity: dental fluorosis. Monogr Oral Sci 22:81–96.  https://doi.org/10.1159/000327028CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Diduch M, Polkowska Z, Namieśnik J (2013) Factors affecting the quality of bottled water. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol 23(2):111–119.  https://doi.org/10.1038/jes.2012.101CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Doria MD (2006) Bottled water versus tap water: understanding consumers’ preferences. J Water Health 4(2):271–276.  https://doi.org/10.2166/wh.2006.0023CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Dupont C, Campagne A, Constant F (2014) Efficacy and safety of a magnesium sulfate-rich natural mineral water for patients with functional constipation. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 12(8):1280–1287.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cgh.2013.12.005CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. EFSA (2017) Dietary Reference Values for nutrients. Summary reports. EFSA Supporting publication 2017:e1512. European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), Parma.  https://doi.org/10.2903/sp.efsa.2017.e15121. https://www.efsa.europa.eu/sites/default/files/2017_09_DRVs_summary_report.pdf. Accessed 19 Nov 2019
  22. EFSA NDA Panel, Turck D, Bresson JL, Burlingame B, Dean T, Fairweather-Tait S, Heinonen M, Hirsch-Ernst KI, Mangelsdorf I, McArdle H, Naska A, Neuhäuser-Berthold M, Nowicka G, Pentieva K, Sanz Y, Sjödin A, Stern M, Tomé D, Van Loveren H, Vinceti M, Willatts P, Martin A, Strain S, Siani A (2016) Scientific opinion on calcium and contribution to the normal development of bones:evaluation of a health claim pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. EFSA J 14(10):4587–4596.  https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2016.4587
  23. EFSA Panel on Contaminants (2005) Opinion of the Scientific Panel on Contaminants in the food chain on a request of the Commission related to concentration limits for boron and fluoride in natural mineral waters adopted on 22 June 2005. EFSA J 237:1–8.  https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2005.237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Emily A, Janet L (2006) Plan B updates. Earth Policy Institute, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ. Available http://www.earth-policy.org/index.php?/plan_b_updates/2006/update51. Accessed 27 Dec 2019
  25. European Council (1998) Council Directive 98/83/EC of 3 November 1998 on the quality of water intended for human consumption. Off J Eur Comm L330:0032–0054Google Scholar
  26. European Parlament and Council (2009) Directive 2009/54/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 18 June 2009 on the exploitation and marketing of natural mineral waters. Off J Eur Union L164:45–58Google Scholar
  27. FDA (2001) 66 FR 35373—beverages: bottled water; technical amendment; confirmation of effective date. Food and Drugs Administration (FDA), Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  28. FDA (2019) Code of Federal Regulations. Title 21. Food for human consumption. Food and Drugs Administration (FDA), Department of Health and Human Services, Wagshington. DCGoogle Scholar
  29. Ferrier C (2001) Bottled water: understanding a social phenomenon. Ambio 30(2):118–119.  https://doi.org/10.1579/0044-7447-30.2.118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Flynn J, Slovic P, Mertz CK (1994) Gender, race, and perception of environmental health risks. Risk Anal 14(6):1101–1108.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1539-6924.1994.tb00082.xCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Grondin J, Levallois P, Moret S, Gingras S (1996) The influence of demographics, risk perception, knowledge, and organoleptics on water consumption patterns. In: Proceedings of the American Water Works Association (AWWA) annual conference: management and regulations, Denver, 1996Google Scholar
  32. Heaney P (2006) Absorbability and utility of calcium in mineral waters. Am J Clin Nutr 84(2):371–374.  https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/84.2.371CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Hu Z, Morton L, Mahler RL (2011) Bottled water: United States consumers and their perceptions of water quality. Int J Environ Res Public Health 8(2):565–578.  https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph8020565CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  34. Hurd R (1993) Consumer attitude survey on water quality issues. American Water Works Association Research Foundation (AWWA-RF), DenverGoogle Scholar
  35. IBWA (2009) Bottled water code practice. International Bottled Water Association (IBWA), Alexandria. Available https://www.bottledwater.org/files/IBWA%20Code%20of%20Practice%20Updated%202009%20Final_3.pdf. Accessed 21 Nov 2019
  36. IFEN (2000) La préoccupation des Français pour la qualité de l’eau. Les Données de ’Environnement 57:1–4. Institut Francais de L’Environnement (IFEN), Orléans. http://www.side.developpement-durable.gouv.fr/EXPLOITATION/DEFAULT/Infodoc/ged/viewportalpublished.ashx?eid=IFD_FICJOINT_0001678&search=. Accessed 20 Nov 2019
  37. Jiang L, He P, Chen J, Liu Y, Liu D, Qin G, Tan N (2016) Magnesium levels in drinking water and coronary heart disease mortality risk: a meta-analysis. Nutrients 8(1, pii):E5.  https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8010005CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Keyashian M (2014) Water systems for pharmaceutical facilities. In: Vogel HC, Todaro CM (eds) Fermentation and biochemical engineering handbook, 3rd edn. William Andrew, Waltham and Kidlington.  https://doi.org/10.1016/b978-1-4557-2553-3.00017-9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Kotler P, Armstrong G, Wong V, Saunders J (2008) Principles of Marketing, 5th edn. Pearson Education Limited, HarlowGoogle Scholar
  40. Laville S, Taylor M (2017) A million bottles a minute: world’s plastic binge ‘as dangerous as climate change’. Guardian News & Media Limited London. https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2017/jun/28/a-million-a-minute-worlds-plastic-bottle-binge-as-dangerous-as-climate-change. Accessed 20 Nov 2019
  41. Levallois P, Grondin J, Gingras S (1999) Evaluation of consumer attitudes on taste and tap water alternatives in Quebec. Wat Sci Technol 40(6):135–139.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0273-1223(99)00549-1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Mascha M (2006) Fine waters: A connoisseur's guide to the world's most distinctive bottled waters. Quirk Books, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  43. Mennuni G, Petraccia L, Fontana M, Nocchi S, Stortini E, Romoli M, Esposito E, Priori F, Grassi M, Geraci A, Serio A, Fraioli A (2014) The therapeutic activity of sulphate-bicarbonate-calcium-magnesiac mineral water in the functional disorders of the biliary tract. Clin Ter 165(5):e346–e352.  https://doi.org/10.7417/CT.2014.1761CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Meunier PJ, Jenvrin C, Munoz F, de la Gueronnière V, Garnero P, Menz M (2005) Consumption of a high calcium mineral water lowers biochemical indices of bone remodeling in postmenopausal women with low calcium intake. Osteoporos Int 16(10):1203–1209.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00198-004-1828-6CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Morishita M, Mori S, Yamagami S, Mizutani M (2014) Effect of carbonated beverages on pharyngeal swallowing in young individuals and elderly inpatients. Dysphagia 29(2):213–222.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00455-013-9493-6CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Murakami S, Goto Y, Ito K, Hayasaka S, Kurihara S, Soga T, Tomita M, Fukuda S (2015) The consumption of bicarbonate-rich mineral water improves glycemic control. Evid Based Complement Altern Med 2015: Article ID 824395.  https://doi.org/10.1155/2015/824395CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Olson ED (1999) Bottled water: pure drink or pure hype? Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC), Publications Department, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  48. Petraccia L, Liberati G, Masciullo SG, Grassi M, Fraioli A (2006) Water, mineral waters and health. Clin Nutr 25(3):377–385.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2005.10.002CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Rodwan JG Jr (2018) Bottled water 2017. Bottled Water Reporter Jul/Aug 2018:12–20.www.bottledwater.com. https://www.bottledwater.org/public/BMC2017_BWR_StatsArticle.pdf. Accessed 20 Nov 2019
  50. Sajjadi SA, Alipour V, Matlabi M, Biglari H (2016) Consumer perception and preference of drinking water sources. Electron Physician 8(11):3228–3233.  https://doi.org/10.19082/3228CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  51. Saylor A, Prokopy LS, Amberg S (2011) What’s wrong with the tap? Examining perceptions of tap water and bottled water at Purdue University. Environ Manag 48(3):588–601.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00267-011-9692-6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Schoppen S, Pérez-Granados AM, Carbajal A, Oubiña P, Sánchez-Muniz FJ, Gómez-Gerique JA, Vaquero MP (2004) A sodium-rich carbonated mineral water reduces cardiovascular risk in postmenopausal women. J Nutr 134(5):1058–1063.  https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/134.5.1058CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Schoppen S, Pérez-Granados AM, Carbajal A, Sarriá B, Sánchez-Muniz FJ, Gómez-Gerique JA, Pilar Vaquero M (2005) Sodium bicarbonated mineral water decreases postprandial lipaemia in postmenopausal women compared to a low mineral water. Br J Nutr 94(4):582–587.  https://doi.org/10.1079/BJN20051515CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Schorr U, Distler A, Sharma AM (1996) Effect of sodium chloride- and sodium bicarbonate-rich mineral water on blood pressure and metabolic parameters in elderly normotensive individuals: a randomized double-blind crossover trial. J Hypertens 14(1):131–135PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. The Business Research Company (2018) The global bottled water market: expert insights & statistics. MarketResearch.com, Rockville. https://blog.marketresearch.com/the-global-bottled-water-market-expert-insights-statistics. Accessed 20 Nov 2019
  56. Toussaint C, Peuchant E, Nguyen BC, Jensen R, Canelas J (1986) Influence of calcic and magnesic sulphurous thermal water on the metabolism of lipoproeins in the rat. Arch Int Physiol Biochim 94:65–76PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Toxqui L, Vaquero MP (2016) An intervention with mineral water decreases cardiometabolic risk biomarkers. A crossover, randomised, controlled trial with two mineral waters in moderately hypercholesterolaemic adults. Nutrients 8(7):E400.  https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8070400CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. WHO (2011) Fluoride. Drinking water guidelines, 4th edn. Chemical Fact Sheets. World Health Organization (WHO), GenevaGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Medical, Surgical Sciences and Advanced Technologies “G.F. Ingrassia”University of CataniaCataniaItaly
  2. 2.Police HeadquartersGeneral Prevention & Public Aid OfficeCataniaItaly
  3. 3.Department of Biomedical and Dental Sciences and Morphofunctional ImagingUniversity of MessinaMessinaItaly

Personalised recommendations