Water and Health

Part of the SpringerBriefs in Molecular Science book series (BRIEFSMOLECULAR)


Water is essential for all functions of the body: metabolism, substrate transport across membranes, cellular homeostasis, temperature regulation and circulatory function. A water intake which balances losses and which assures adequate hydration of body tissues is essential for health. Water is consumed from different sources, which include water produced by oxidative processes in the body, drinking water, beverages and foods. Drinking water and beverages represent 70–80% of total fluid intake, while water coming from food represents about 20–30% of the total intake. Today, neither upper nor lower water consumption limits have been clearly linked to a specific benefit or risk, and most of the guidelines for total water intake are based on median population intake.


Dehydration Drinking water Extracellular water Fat-free mass Hypohydration Intracellular water Water intake 



Adequate Intake


Carbon dioxide


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention


European Food Safety Authority


European Union


Institute of Medicine


Total Water Intake


United States of America


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Copyright information

© The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Medical, Surgical Sciences and Advanced Technologies “G.F. Ingrassia”University of CataniaCataniaItaly
  2. 2.Police HeadquartersGeneral Prevention & Public Aid OfficeCataniaItaly
  3. 3.Department of Biomedical and Dental Sciences and Morphofunctional ImagingUniversity of MessinaMessinaItaly

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