Advertisement

Burkina Faso: Global Gold Expansion and Local Terrains

Chapter

Abstract

This chapter analyses how global mining capital arrived in Burkina Faso and how it touched ground, focusing on the way it articulates with artisanal mining and affects local community relations more broadly. It shows how gold mining “crystallizations” evolve throughout the mining cycle by looking at the interplay between, on the one hand, structural features of the projects of junior exploration companies and major gold producers and, on the other, characteristics of the local circumstances in which mining companies seek to operate. To this end, the chapter addresses questions such as: What pattern can be identified to the arrival of junior companies and the promises made to local communities? And, in addition, how do structural features of takeovers and mine extensions affect company and community relations in later stages of the mine-life? In the second part, these mining dynamics are situated in the wider political context of Burkina Faso. It focuses on the period after the ousting of former president Blaise Compaore and the explosive place of gold mining in the current crisis. Against the background of political change, this chapter discerns connections between the gold mining terrain and the predicament of violent precarity that currently engulfs Burkina Faso.

Keywords

LSM-ASGM relations Mining crystallizations Mining cycle Gold mining and violent precarity 

References

  1. Bantenga, M. (1995). L’Or des Regions de Poura et de Gaoua: Les Vicissitudes de l’Exploitation Coloniale, 1925–1960. The International Journal of African Historical Studies, 28(3), 563–576.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bebbington, A., Hinojosa, L., Bebbington, D. H., Burneo, M. L., & Warnaars, X. (2008). Contention and ambiguity: Mining and the possibilities of development. Development and Change, 39(6), 887–914.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Campbell, B. (Ed.). (2009). Mining in Africa: Regulation and development. IDRC.Google Scholar
  4. Capitant, S. (2017). Les’ populations’ à l’assaut des mines: économie morale de la contestation minière au Burkina Faso. In Anthropologie Des Prédations Foncières: Entreprises Minières et Pouvoirs Locaux (p. 29). Paris: Archives contemporaines.Google Scholar
  5. Chalfin, B. (2008). Sovereigns and citizens in close encounter: Airport anthropology and customs regimes in neoliberal Ghana. American Ethnologist, 35(4), 519–538.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Côte, M. (2013). What’s in a right? The liberalisation of gold mining and decentralisation in Burkina Faso. In The land deals politics initiative working paper series. The Hague: ISS.Google Scholar
  7. Côte, M. (2015). Struggle for autonomy: Seeing gold and forest like a local government in Northern Burkina Faso (PhD thesis).Google Scholar
  8. Côte, M., & Korf, B. (2018). Making concessions: Extractive enclaves, entangled capitalism and regulative pluralism at the gold mining frontier in Burkina Faso. World Development, 101, 466–476.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Di Balme, L. A., & Lanzano, C. (2013). «Entrepreneurs de la frontière»: le rôle des comptoirs privés dans les sites d’extraction artisanale de l’or au Burkina Faso. Politique Africaine, 131(3), 27–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Drechsel, F., Engels, B., & Schäfer, M. (2018). «Les mines nous rendent pauvres»: L’exploitation minière industrielle au Burkina Faso (GLOCON Country Report, 2).Google Scholar
  11. Emel, J., & Huber, M. T. (2008). A risky business: Mining, rent and the neoliberalization of “risk”. Geoforum, 39(3), 1393–1407.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Engels, B. (2017). Not all glitter is gold: Mining conflicts in Burkina Faso. In Contested extractivism, society and the state (pp. 149–169). London: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  13. Engels, B. (2018). Nothing will be as before: Shifting political opportunity structures in protests against gold mining in Burkina Faso. The Extractive Industries and Society, 5(2), 354–362.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Geschiere, P. (2009). The perils of belonging: Autochthony, citizenship, and exclusion in Africa and Europe. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  15. Guéniat, M., & White, N. (2015). A golden racket: The true source of Switzerland’s “Togolese” gold. Berne Declaration, Geneva.Google Scholar
  16. Guyer, J. I. (1995). Wealth in people, wealth in things–introduction. The Journal of African History, 36(1), 83–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hagberg, S. (2019). Performing tradition while doing politics: A comparative study of the dozos and koglweogos self-defense movements in Burkina Faso. African Studies Review, 62(1), 173–193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hilson, G. (2011). ‘Inherited commitments’: Do changes in ownership affect Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) at African gold mines? African Journal of Business Management, 5(27), 10921–10939.Google Scholar
  19. Hunter, M. (2019). Pulling at golden webs combating criminal consortia in the African artisanal and small-scale gold mining and trade sector. Retrieved from https://globalinitiative.net/wp-content/uploads/2019/04/ENACT-Research-Paper-008-Gold-Mining-24Apr1130-WEB.pdf.
  20. International Crisis Group. (2019, November 13). Getting a grip on Central Sahel’s gold rush (Africa Report N° 282).Google Scholar
  21. Katz, J., & Holmes, F. (2008). The goldwatcher: Demystifying gold investing. Ontario: Wiley.Google Scholar
  22. Kevane, M. (2015). Gold mining and economic and social change in West Africa. In The Oxford handbook of Africa and economics (Vol. 2). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  23. Kiétéga, J. B. (1983). L’or de la Volta noire : archéologie et histoire de l’exploitation traditionnelle (Région de Poura, Haute-Volta). Paris: Karthala.Google Scholar
  24. Li, T. M. (2005). Beyond “the state” and failed schemes. American Anthropologist, 107(3), 383–394.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Luning, S. (2008). Liberalisation of the gold mining sector in Burkina Faso. Review of African Political Economy, 35(117), 387–401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Luning, S. (2012). Processing promises of gold: A minefield of company-community relations in Burkina Faso. Africa Today, 58(3), 23–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Luning, S. (2014). The future of artisanal miners from a large-scale perspective: From valued pathfinders to disposable illegals? Futures, 62, 67–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Luning, S., & Pijpers, R. J. (2017). Governing access to gold in Ghana: In-depth geopolitics on mining concessions. Africa, 87(4), 758–779.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. OECD. (2015). Gold at the crossroads: Assessment of the supply chains of gold produced in Burkina Faso, Mali and Niger. Retrieved from https://globalinitiative.net/experts/roberto-sollazzo/.
  30. Owen, J. R., & Kemp, D. (2015). Mining-induced displacement and resettlement: A critical appraisal. Journal of Cleaner Production, 87, 478–488.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Rubbers, B. (2013). Les sociétés africaines face aux investissements miniers. Politique Africaine, 3, 5–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Werthmann, K. (2007). Gold mining and Jula influence in precolonial Southern Burkina Faso. The Journal of African History, 48(3), 395–414.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Werthmann, K. (2017). The drawbacks of privatization: ASGM in Burkina Faso 1986–2016. Resources Policy, 52, 418–426.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of LeidenLeidenThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations