Skip to main content

Dynamics, Control and Stability of Motion of Electric Scooters

  • Conference paper
  • First Online:
Advances in Dynamics of Vehicles on Roads and Tracks (IAVSD 2019)


Recently we are witnessing a boom in electric single-passenger vehicles for urban micro-mobility, and more and more companies are joining this business. However, this type of means of transport is not subject to regulations in many countries, what generates uncertainty and lack of protection of citizens, both users of these vehicles and possible third parties who might be involved in an accident. This type of single-person vehicles are usually based on the use of small diameter wheels as a rolling element. The modeling and computational analysis of its dynamic characteristics, as well as the study of its stability and, therefore, of the physical parameters that decisively influence it, are the object of this project. In particular, an scooter benchmark is presented.

Single-track vehicles like bicycles and motorbikes are important subjects of research in vehicle dynamics. Therefore, the theoretical results for bicycles will be used for escooters, too. However, the parameters of bicycles and escooters are very different: The bicyclists are sitting on their vehicles while the scooters are standing. Moreover, the bicycles have big wheels with tires generating gyroscopic forces and escooters have only small often rigid wheels. The knowledge of how the main parameters of the model affect its stability and maneuverability will allow design modifications that may lead to safer vehicles and will result in the reduction of accidents in urban mobility through these vehicles.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this chapter

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or Ebook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

USD 29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
USD 259.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as EPUB and PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
Softcover Book
USD 329.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Compact, lightweight edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info
Hardcover Book
USD 329.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Durable hardcover edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info

Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout

Purchases are for personal use only

Institutional subscriptions

Similar content being viewed by others


  1. Toll, M.: Website. Accessed 09 June 2019

  2. SEAT KickScooter. Accessed 09 June 2019

  3. Whipple, F.J.W.: The stability of the motion of a bicycle. Quart. J. Pure Appl. Math. 30, 312–348 (1899)

    MATH  Google Scholar 

  4. Sharp, R.S.: The stability and control of motorcycles. J. Mech. Eng. Science 13, 316–329 (1971)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Sharp, R.S.: The influence of the suspension system on weave-mode oscillations. Veh. Syst. Dyn. 5, 147–154 (1976)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Meijaard, J.P., Papadopoulos, J.M., Ruina, A., Schwab, A.L.: Linearized dynamics equations for the balance and steer of a bicycle: a benchmark and review. Proc. R. Soc. A 463, 1955–1982 (2007)

    Article  MathSciNet  Google Scholar 

  7. Kooijman, J.D.G., Schwab, A.L., Meijaard, J.P.: Experimental validation of a model of an uncontrolled bicycle. Multibody Sys. Dyn. 19, 115–132 (2008)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Sharp, R.: On the stability and control of the bicycle. Appl. Mech. Rev. 61, 060803:1–060803:24 (2008)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Schwab, A.L., Meijaard, J.: A review on bicycle dynamics and rider control. Veh. Syst. Dyn. 51, 1059–1090 (2013)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Lipp, G.M.: Single-track Vehicle Dynamics and Stability. Assessed 11 June 2019

  11. Kamen, D.: A Moving History – Segway Website. Accessed 13 June 2019

  12. Clewlow, R.: Website. Accessed 13 June 2019

  13. Segway product instructions manuals: Website. Accessed 26 May 2019

  14. Popp, K., Schiehlen, W.: Ground Vehicle Dynamics. Springer, Heidelberg (2010)

    Book  Google Scholar 

  15. García-Vallejo, D., Schiehlen, W., García-Agúndez-Blanco, A.: eXS KickScooter Benchmark Documents. Institute report 66. Institute of Engineering Computational Mechanics, Stuttgart (2019)

    Google Scholar 

  16. Hanss, M.: Webseite. Accessed 11 June 2019

  17. García-Vallejo, D., Schiehlen, W.: 3D-Simulation of human walking by parameter optimization. Arch. Appl. Mech. 82, 533–556 (2012)

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding authors

Correspondence to Daniel García-Vallejo or Werner Schiehlen .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

Copyright information

© 2020 Springer Nature Switzerland AG

About this paper

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this paper

García-Vallejo, D., Schiehlen, W., García-Agúndez, A. (2020). Dynamics, Control and Stability of Motion of Electric Scooters. In: Klomp, M., Bruzelius, F., Nielsen, J., Hillemyr, A. (eds) Advances in Dynamics of Vehicles on Roads and Tracks. IAVSD 2019. Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering. Springer, Cham.

Download citation

  • DOI:

  • Published:

  • Publisher Name: Springer, Cham

  • Print ISBN: 978-3-030-38076-2

  • Online ISBN: 978-3-030-38077-9

  • eBook Packages: EngineeringEngineering (R0)

Publish with us

Policies and ethics