Skip to main content

Projected and Perceived Destination Image of Tyrol on Instagram

  • Conference paper
  • First Online:
Information and Communication Technologies in Tourism 2020

Abstract

Alpine tourism destinations are highly dependent on their destination image. On Social Media, this perceived image relies heavily on user-generated content (UGC), which cannot be completely controlled by Destination Marketing Organizations (DMOs). Potential tourists prefer informing themselves about travel destinations online, as UGC provides an unbiased resource reflecting a tourist’s perception. On Instagram, DMOs focus mainly on visual materials for projecting the intended destination image, affecting users’ perceptions, attitudes as well as travel behaviour, thus, alignment between the projected and perceived destination image is beneficial. This study compares photos collected from Instagram adopting a comparative content analysis approach together with Chi-square tests and Co-occurrence analysis, in order to identify differences of the projected and perceived destination image between posts by the Tyrol Tourist Board and actual tourists with the visittyrol hashtag. Findings are visualized via aggregated destination image maps. Results identify Nature & Landscapes, People, Plants, Architecture & Buildings and Residents’ Lives as the five predominant attributes of the projected Tyrolean destination image. However, tourists tend to be more interested in capturing nature, vegetation, leisure activities and domesticated animals, rather than lives of locals and their traditions. Similarities are found in illustrations of outdoor sports, other leisure activities and architecture.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this chapter

Chapter
USD 29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
eBook
USD 129.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as EPUB and PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
Softcover Book
USD 169.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Compact, lightweight edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info

Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout

Purchases are for personal use only

Institutional subscriptions

Similar content being viewed by others

Notes

  1. 1.

    Interview with Eckard Speckbacher, Head of Digital Communication, Tirol Tourist Board, on June 3, 2019.

References

  1. Hu Y, Ritchie JB (1993) Measuring destination attractiveness: a contextual approach. J Travel Res 32(2):25–34

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Bernkopf D, Nixon L (2019) The impact of visual social media on the projected image of a destination: the case of Mexico City on Instagram. In: Pesonen J, Neidhardt J (eds) Information and communication technologies in tourism 2019. Springer, Cham, pp 145–157

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  3. Gartner WC (1986) Temporal influences on image change. Ann Tour Res 13(4):635–644

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Stepchenkova S, Zhan F (2013) Visual destination images of Peru: comparative content analysis of DMO and user-generated photography. Tour Manag 36:590–601

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Ye H, Tussyadiah IP (2011) Destination visual image and expectation of experiences. J Travel Tour Mark 28(2):129–144

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Frías DM, Rodríguez MA, Castañeda JA et al (2012) The formation of a tourist destination’s image via information sources: the moderating effect of culture. Int J Tour Res 14(5):437–450

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Chang J-H, Wang S-H (2019) Different levels of destination expectation: the effects of online advertising and electronic word-of-mouth. Telemat Inform 36:27–38

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Pearce PL (1988) The ulysses factor: evaluating visitors in tourist settings. Springer, New York

    Book  Google Scholar 

  9. Picazo P, Moreno-Gil S (2017) Analysis of the projected image of tourism destinations on photographs: a literature review to prepare for the future. J Vacat Mark 25(1):3–24

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Chon K-S (1990) The role of destination image in tourism: a review and discussion. Tour Rev 45(2):2–9

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Beerli A, Martín JD (2004) Factors influencing destination image. Ann Tour Res 31(3):657–681

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Kock F, Josiassen A, Assaf AG (2016) Advancing destination image: the destination content model. Ann Tour Res 61:28–44

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Josiassen A, Assaf AG, Woo L et al (2015) The imagery–image duality model: an integrative review and advocating for improved delimitation of concepts. J Travel Res 55(6):789–803

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. del Bosque IR, Martín HS (2008) Tourist satisfaction a cognitive-affective model. Ann Tour Res 35(2):551–573

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Xiang Z, Gretzel U (2010) Role of social media in online travel information search. Tour Manag 31(2):179–188

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Yoo K-H, Gretzel U, Zach F (2011) Travel opinion leaders and seekers. In: Law R, Fuchs M, Ricci F (eds) Information and communication technologies in tourism 2011. Springer, Vienna, pp 525–535

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  17. Miller C (2017) How Instagram is changing travel. https://www.nationalgeographic.com/travel/travel-interests/arts-and-culture/how-instagram-is-changing-travel/. Accessed 23 June 2019

  18. Andreu L, Bigné JE, Cooper C (2008) Projected and perceived image of Spain as a tourist destination for British travellers. J Travel Tour Mark 9(4):47–67

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Schwaighofer V (2014) Tourist destination images and local culture. Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden, Wiesbaden

    Book  Google Scholar 

  20. Baloglu S, Uysal M (1996) Market segments of push and pull motivations: a canonical correlation approach. Int J Contemp Hosp Manag 8(3):32–38

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Baloglu S, Mangaloglu M (2001) Tourism destination images of Turkey, Egypt, Greece, and Italy as perceived by US-based tour operators and travel agents. Tour Manag 22(1):1–9

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Chen JS, Hsu CHC (2000) Measurement of Korean tourists’ perceived images of overseas destinations. J Travel Res 38(4):411–416

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Govers R, Go FM (2005) Projected destination image online: website content analysis of pictures and text. Inf Technol Tour 7(2):73–89

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Hunt JD (1975) Image as a factor in tourism development. J Travel Res 13(3):1–7

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Urry J (1990) The tourist gaze: leisure and travel in contemporary societies. Sage Publications, London

    Google Scholar 

  26. Kim H, Stepchenkova S (2015) Effect of tourist photographs on attitudes towards destination: manifest and latent content. Tour Manag 49:29–41

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. Bell P (2001) Content analysis of visual images. In: Jewitt C, van Leeuwen T (eds) Handbook of visual analysis. Sage Publications, London, pp 10–34

    Google Scholar 

  28. Li X, Stepchenkova S (2012) Chinese outbound tourists’ destination image of America: part I. J Travel Res 51(3):250–266

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. Neuendorf KA (2002) The content analysis guidebook. Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks

    Google Scholar 

  30. Kirilenko AP, Stepchenkova S (2016) Inter-coder agreement in one-to-many classification: fuzzy kappa. PLoS One 11(3):e0149787

    Article  Google Scholar 

  31. Cip T, Münch V, Pindzo J et al (2019) Conceptual process model for Instagram caption analysis in the case of the destination Ischgl. In: Maurer C, Siller HJ (eds) ISCONTOUR 2019 tourism research perspectives: proceedings of the international student conference in tourism research. BoD – Books on Demand, Norderstedt, pp 135–148

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Aleksander Groth .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

Copyright information

© 2020 Springer Nature Switzerland AG

About this paper

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this paper

Wacker, A., Groth, A. (2020). Projected and Perceived Destination Image of Tyrol on Instagram. In: Neidhardt, J., Wörndl, W. (eds) Information and Communication Technologies in Tourism 2020. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-36737-4_9

Download citation

Publish with us

Policies and ethics