Advertisement

Technical Usability of Wikidata’s Linked Data

Evaluation of Machine Interoperability and Data Interpretability
  • Nuno FreireEmail author
  • Antoine Isaac
Conference paper
  • 132 Downloads
Part of the Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing book series (LNBIP, volume 373)

Abstract

Wikidata is an outstanding data source with potential application in many scenarios. Wikidata provides its data openly in RDF. Our study aims to evaluate the usability of Wikidata as a data source for robots operating on the web of data, according to specifications and practices of linked data, the Semantic Web and ontology reasoning. We evaluated from the perspective of two use cases of data crawling robots, which are guided by our general motivation to acquire richer data for Europeana, a data aggregator from the Cultural Heritage domain. The first use case regards general data consumption applications based on RDF, RDF-Schema, OWL, SKOS and linked data. The second case regards applications that explore semantics relying on Schema.org and SKOS. We conclude that a human operator must assist linked data applications to interpret Wikidata’s RDF because of the choices that were taken at Wikidata in the definition of its expression in RDF. The semantics of the RDF output from Wikidata is “locked-in” by the usage of Wikidata’s own ontology, resulting in the need for human intervention. Wikidata is only a few steps away from high quality machine interpretation, however. It contains extensive alignment data to RDF, RDFS, OWL, SKOS and Schema.org, but a machine interpretation of those alignments can only be done if some essential Wikidata alignment properties are known.

Keywords

RDF RDFS OWL Schema.org Semantic Web 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was partly supported by Portuguese national funds through Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT) with reference UID/CEC/50021/2019, and by the European Commission under contract number 30-CE-0885387/00-80.e.

References

  1. 1.
    Niggermann, E., Cousins, J., Sanderhoff, M.: Europeana Business Plan 2018 ‘Democratizing culture’. Europeana Foundation (2018). https://pro.europeana.eu/files/Europeana_Professional/Publications/Europeana_Business_Plan_2018.pdf
  2. 2.
    Rietveld, L.: Publishing and Consuming Linked Data: Optimizing for the Unknown. Studies on the Semantic Web, vol. 21. IOS Press, Amsterdam (2016)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Radulovic, F., Mihindukulasooriya, N., García-Castro, R., Gomez-Pérez, A.: A comprehensive quality model for linked data. In: Semantic Web, vol. 9, no. 1/2018. IOS Press (2018)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Beek, W., Rietveld, L., Ilievski, F., Schlobach, S.: LOD lab: scalable linked data processing. In: Pan, J., et al. (eds.) Reasoning Web 2016. LNCS, vol. 9885, pp. 124–155. Springer, Cham (2017).  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-49493-7_4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Beek, W., Rietveld, L., Schlobach, S., van Harmelen, F.: LOD Laundromat: why the Semantic Web needs centralization (even if we don’t like it). In: IEEE Internet Computing, vol. 20, no. 2. IEEE (2016)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Fernández, J.D., Beek, W., Martínez-Prieto, M.A., Arias, M.: LOD-a-lot. In: d’Amato, C., et al. (eds.) ISWC 2017. LNCS, vol. 10588, pp. 75–83. Springer, Cham (2017).  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-68204-4_7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hogan, A.: Reasoning Techniques for the Web of Data. Studies on the Semantic Web, vol. 19. IOS Press, Amsterdam (2014)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Simou, N., Chortaras, A., Stamou, G., Kollias, S.: Enriching and publishing cultural heritage as linked open data. In: Ioannides, M., Magnenat-Thalmann, N., Papagiannakis, G. (eds.) Mixed Reality and Gamification for Cultural Heritage, pp. 201–223. Springer, Cham (2017).  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-49607-8_7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hyvönen, E.: Publishing and using cultural heritage linked data on the semantic web. In: Ding, Y., Groth, P. (eds.) Synthesis Lectures on the Semantic Web: Theory and Technology (2012).  https://doi.org/10.2200/s00452ed1v01y201210wbe003
  10. 10.
    Jones, E., Seikel, M. (eds.): Linked Data for Cultural Heritage. Facet Publishing, London (2016)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
  12. 12.
    Rietveld, L., Verborgh, R., Beek, W., Vander Sande, M., Schlobach, S.: Linked data-as-a-service: the semantic web redeployed. In: Gandon, F., Sabou, M., Sack, H., d’Amato, C., Cudré-Mauroux, P., Zimmermann, A. (eds.) ESWC 2015. LNCS, vol. 9088, pp. 471–487. Springer, Cham (2015).  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-18818-8_29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Freire, N., Manguinhas, H., Isaac, A., Robson, G., Howard, J.B.: Web technologies: a survey of their applicability to metadata aggregation in cultural heritage. In: Chan, L., Loizides, F. (eds.) Expanding Perspectives on Open Science: Communities. Cultures and Diversity in Concepts and Practices. IOS Press, Amsterdam (2018). Inf. Serv. Use J. 37(4)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Freire, N., Robson, G., Howard, J.B., Manguinhas, H., Isaac, A.: Metadata aggregation: assessing the application of IIIF and sitemaps within cultural heritage. In: Kamps, J., Tsakonas, G., Manolopoulos, Y., Iliadis, L., Karydis, I. (eds.) TPDL 2017. LNCS, vol. 10450, pp. 220–232. Springer, Cham (2017).  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-67008-9_18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Freire, N., Charles, V., Isaac, A.: Evaluation of Schema.org for aggregation of cultural heritage metadata. In: Gangemi, A., et al. (eds.) ESWC 2018. LNCS, vol. 10843, pp. 225–239. Springer, Cham (2018).  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-93417-4_15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Freire, N., Meijers, E., Voorburg, R., Cornelissen, R., Isaac, A., de Valk, S.: Aggregation of linked data: a case study in the cultural heritage domain. In: 2018 IEEE International Conference on Big Data (Big Data). IEEE (2018)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Curé, O., Blin, G. (eds.): RDF Database Systems, pp. 41–80. Morgan Kaufmann (2015). Chapter Three - RDF and the Semantic Web Stack.  https://doi.org/10.1016/b978-0-12-799957-9.00003-1
  18. 18.
    Király, P., Stiller, J., Charles, V., Bailer, W., Freire, N.: Evaluating data quality in Europeana: metrics for multilinguality. In: Garoufallou, E., Sartori, F., Siatri, R., Zervas, M. (eds.) MTSR 2018. CCIS, vol. 846, pp. 199–211. Springer, Cham (2019).  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-14401-2_19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Erxleben, F., Günther, M., Krötzsch, M., Mendez, J., Vrandečić, D.: Introducing Wikidata to the linked data web. In: Mika, P., et al. (eds.) ISWC 2014. LNCS, vol. 8796, pp. 50–65. Springer, Cham (2014).  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-11964-9_4CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.INESC-IDLisbonPortugal
  2. 2.Europeana FoundationThe HagueThe Netherlands
  3. 3.Vrije Universiteit AmsterdamAmsterdamThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations