Richlin A. Pornography and representation in Greece and Rome. New York: Oxford University Press; 1992.
Mattelaer JJ. The phallus in art and culture. Brussels: European Association of Urology. PANA editions; 2008.
Plato WR. Symposium, a new translation by [author]. New York: Oxford University Press; 1994.
Humphries R. Ovid: the art of love, translation. Bloomington: Indiana University Press; 1957.
Miller DJ, Kidd G, Hald GM. Self-perceived effects of pornography consumption among heterosexual men. Psychol Men Masculinity. 2018;19(3):469–76.
Perelman MA, Rowland DL. Retarded and inhibited ejaculation. In: Rowland DL, Incrocci L, editors. Handbook of sexual and gender identity disorders. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons; 2008. p. 100–21.
Magness MS. Stop sex addiction. Las Vegas: Central Recovery Press; 2013.
Malamuth N, Addison T, Koss M. Pornography and sexual aggression: are there reliable effects and can we understand them? Ann Rev Sex Res. 2000;11:26–91.
Jochen P, Valkenburg PM. Adolescents and pornography: a review of 20 years of research. J Sex Res. 2016;53:509–31.
Eaton LA, Cain DN, Pope H, Garcia J, Cherry C. The relationship between pornography use and sexual behaviors among at-risk HIV negative men who have sex with men. Sex Health. 2012;9(2):166–70.
Harkness EL, Mullan BM, Blaszczynski A. Association between pornography use and sexual risk behaviors in adult consumers: a systematic review. Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw. 2015;18(2):59–71.
Brown M, Amoroso DM, Ware Edward EE. Behavioral effects of viewing pornography. J Soc Psychol. 2010;98(2):235–45.
Baćak V, Stulhofer A. Masturbation among sexually active young women in Croatia: associations with religiosity and pornography use. Int J Sex Health. 2011;23(4):248–57.
Calvalheira A, Træen B, Stulhofer A. Masturbation and pornography use among coupled heterosexual men with decreased sexual desire: how many roles of masturbation? J Sex Marital Ther. 2014;41(6):626–35.
Ramlagun P. “Don’t call me weird, but I normally watch porn” – Girls, sexuality, and porn. Agenda Empower Women Gender Equality. 2012;26:31–7.
Rothman EF, Kaczmarsky C, Burke N, Jansen E, Baughman A. “Without porn…I wouldn’t know half the things I know now”: A qualitative study of pornographic use among a sample of urban low-income, black and Hispanic youth. J Sex Res. 2015;52(7):736–46.
McCormack M, Wignall L. Enjoyment, exploration, and education: understanding the consumption of pornography among young men with non-exclusive sexual orientations. Sociology. 2017;51(5):975–91.
Hare KA, Gahagan J, Jackson L, Steenbeek A. Revisualising ‘porn’: how young adults’ consumption explicit Internet movies can inform approaches to Canadian sexual health promotion. Cult Health Sex. 2015;17(3):269–83.
Hald GM, Malamuth NM, Yuen C. Pornography and attitudes supporting violence against women revisting the relationship in non-experimental studies. Aggress Behav. 2010;36(1):14–20.
Njue C, Voeten HA, Remes P. Porn video shows, local brew, and transactional sex: HIV risk among youth in Kisumu. Kenya BMC Public Health. 2011;11:635.
Koletić G, Kohut T, Štulhofer A. Associations between adolescents’ use of sexually explicit material and risky sexual behavior: a longitudinal assessment. PLoS One. 2019;14(6):e0218962.
Peter J, Valkenburg PM. Does exposure to sexually explicit internet material increase body dissatisfaction? A longitudinal study. Comput Inhuman Behav. 2014;36:297–307.
Kvalem IL, Træen B, Lewin B, Stulhofer A. Self-perceived effects of internet pornography use, genital appearance satisfaction, and sexual self-esteem among young Scandinavian adults. J Psychosoc Res Cyberspace. 2014;8(4):5–22.
Dwulit AD, Rzymski P. The potential associations of pornography use with sexual dysfunctions: an integrative literature review of observational studies. J Clin Med. 2019;8(7):914.
Wright PJ, Steffen NJ, Sun CF. Is the relationship between pornography consumption frequency and lower sexual satisfaction curvilinear? Results from England and Germany. J Sex Res. 2019;56:9–15.
Poulsen FO, Busby DM, Galovan AM. Pornography use: who uses it and how it is associated with couple outcomes. J Sex Res. 2013;50(1):72–83.
Perry SL. Is the link between pornography use and relational happiness really more about masturbation? Results from two national surveys. J Sex Res. 2019;11:1–13.
Miller DJ, McBain KA, Li WW, Raggatt PTF. Pornography, preference for porn-like sex, masturbation, and men’s sexual and relationship satisfaction. Pers Relat. 2019;26:93–113.
Balzarini RN, Dobson K, Chin K, Campbell L. Does exposure to erotica reduce attraction and love for romantic partners in men? Independent replications of Kenrick, Gutierres, and Goldberg (1989) study 2. J Exp Soc Psychol. 2017;70:191–7.
Kohut T, Fisher WA, Campbell L. Perceived effects of pornography on the couple relationship: initial findings of open-ended, participant-informed, “bottom-up” research. Arch Sex Behav. 2017;46(2):585–602.
Assa J, Bonini A, Calderon C, Hsu YC, Lengfelder C. Human development indicators and indices: 2018 statistical update. United Nations: New York City; 2018.
2018 Year in review. Hub Insight website. https://www.pornhub.com/insights/2018-year-in-review. March 2019.
2017 Year in review. Hub Insight website. https://www.pornhub.com/insights/2017-year-in-review. March 2019.
2016 Year in review. Hub Insight website. https://www.pornhub.com/insights/2016-year-in-review.
2014 Year in review. Hub Insight website. https://www.pornhub.com/insights/2014-year-in-review.
International Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans and Intersex Association. Lucas Ramon Mendos. State-Sponsored Homophobia 2019. Geneva: ILGA; 2019.
Murphy J, Rosen M. Internet. Our World in Data website. https://ourworldindata.org/internet. 15 Aug 2019.
Individuals using the Internet (% of population). The World Bank website. https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IT.NET.USER.ZS. 15 Aug 2019.
Whitley BE Jr, Wiederman MW, Wryobeck JM. Correlates of heterosexual men’s eroticization of lesbianism. J Psychol Hum Sex. 1999;11(1):25–41. https://doi.org/10.1300/J056v11n01_02.
Neville L. Male gays in the female gaze: women who watch m/m pornography. Porn Stud. 2015;2(2–3):192–207. https://doi.org/10.1080/23268743.2015.1052937.