Ethical Considerations of Biomedical Product Development
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The importance of ethics can be perceived considering the immorality in terrible history of several projects in the field of biomedical research (e.g., Tuskegee, Willowbrook, Milgram, Stanford Prison, etc.). Tuskegee Syphilis Study, for instance, is conducted by the U.S. Public Health Service (1932–1972). In this study, 400 subjects out of 600 African-American males from a low social economic population were infected with syphilis and observed for 40 years. Free medical check-up was given; however, participants were not aware of their disease. Even though a proven treatment such as penicillin was available in the 1950s, the study continued until 1972 and subjects did not receive treatment. In some cases, when other physicians diagnosed that the participants had syphilis, researchers intervened to stop the treatment. During the research study, many participants died of syphilis. Finally, the study ended in 1973 by the US Department of Health, Education, and Welfare after disclosing its details and a political embarrassment. In 1997, President Clinton under mounting pressure apologized to the study subjects and their families. Because of the advertising from the Tuskegee Syphilis Study, the National Research Act of 1974 was legislated in the United States .
KeywordsResearch ethics Plagiarism Informed consent Research ethics committee Animal research Human experimental studies
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